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Abstract In this report, we have reviewed the basic features of the accident processes and radioactivity releases that occurred in the Chernobyl accident (1986) and in the Fukushima-1 accident (2011).The Chernobyl accident was a power-surge accident that was caused by a failure of control of a fission chain reaction, which instantaneously destroyed the reactor and building, whereas the Fukushima-1 accident was a loss-of-coolant accident in which the reactor cores of three units were melted by decay heat after losing the electricity supply.
Although the quantity of radioactive noble gases released from Fukushima-1 exceeded the amount released from Chernobyl, the size of land area severely contaminated by 137 Cesium ( 137 Cs) was 10 times smaller around Fukushima-1 compared with around Chernobyl Smyth Report Wikipedia.Although the quantity of radioactive noble gases released from Fukushima-1 exceeded the amount released from Chernobyl, the size of land area severely contaminated by 137 Cesium ( 137 Cs) was 10 times smaller around Fukushima-1 compared with around Chernobyl.
The differences in the accident process are reflected in the composition of the discharged radioactivity as well as in the composition of the ground contamination.Volatile radionuclides (such as 132 Te- 134 Cs and 137 Cs) contributed to the gamma-ray exposure from the ground contamination around Fukishima-1, whereas a greater variety of radionuclides contributed significantly around Chernobyl.When radioactivity deposition occurred, the radiation exposure rate near Chernobyl is estimated to have been 770 Gy h −1 per initial −2 , whereas it was 100 Gy h −1 around Fukushima-1 21 Oct 2013 - 1954. - United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) established to carry out nuclear research; to develop atomic weapons deterrents and reactor technologies. 1955. - UK government publish white paper titled A programme of nuclear power announcing the first purely commercial nuclear program..When radioactivity deposition occurred, the radiation exposure rate near Chernobyl is estimated to have been 770 Gy h −1 per initial −2 , whereas it was 100 Gy h −1 around Fukushima-1.Estimates of the cumulative exposure for 30 years are 970 and 570 mGy per initial deposition of 1000 kBq m −2 for Chernobyl and Fukusima-1, respectively.
Of these exposures, 49 and 98% were contributed by radiocesiums ( 134 Cs + INTRODUCTION The worst-case scenarios at nuclear power plants are accidents that result in direct release of accumulated radioactivity into the environment from the reactor core 1 , 2 .Two kinds of accidents that can cause such a situation have been of concern since the beginning of nuclear power development: power-surge accidents and loss-of-coolant accidents.The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station (NPS) accident of 1986 belongs to the former group: the power surge was caused by a failure to control fission chain reactions, which led to an explosion that instantaneously destroyed the reactor, together with its building 3 , 4 .The Fukushima-1 accident of 2011 belongs to the latter group: the earthquake and tsunami subsequently let to loss of both the offsite and onsite power supply, leading to reactor core meltdown in three reactors out of six units at the Fukushima-1 NPS 5 , 6 .
Both the Chernobyl and Fukushima-1 accidents are classified as Level-7, the worst level on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
In order to investigate the radiological impacts on biota from nuclear accidents, it is important to obtain detailed information about the composition of the radioactivity contamination and about the level of radiation exposure in the environment.In this paper, the basic features of the accident processes and the radiological consequences (such as radioactivity release into the atmosphere, ground contamination and gamma-ray exposure above the ground) are compared between Chernobyl and Fukushima-1.Chernobyl accident The Chernobyl-type reactor (RBMK-1000, 1000 MWe) was developed by the former USSR based on the reactor for producing plutonium for nuclear weapons, and it was only used inside USSR territory.At the time of the Chernobyl accident in April 1986, there were 15 RBMK reactors operating at five NPSs in the USSR.At the Chernobyl NPS in the Ukraine, four RBMK-1000 reactors were operating and two others were under construction.
From the structure of the reactor, RBMK can be classified as a graphite-moderator, boiling light-water cooling and channel-type reactor, which have the following weaknesses: At midnight 24 April 1986, operation staff at the Chernobyl-4 unit (3200 MWt) began to prepare the reactor for shutdown for maintenance for the first time since the start of operation in December 1983.During the process of the shutting down the reactor, several tests were planned, including testing of a new emergency generator system using the inertial energy of the freewheeling turbines post shutdown.Although this test was scheduled for during the day on 25 April at a power level of 700–1000 MWt, it was postponed till the midnight.At around 00:30 on 26 April, the reactor power suddenly fell to almost zero.The operators tried to revive the reactor power, by pulling out almost all control rods from the reactor core.
At around 01:00, when the reactor was stabilized at a power level of 200 MWt, it was decided to carry out the generator test at a power level less than that planned.a positive void reactivity coefficient that appears when the steam fraction increases in the fuel channels; a ‘positive scram’ effect when all control rods are inserted into the core at the same time under certain extreme operation conditions; complexity of reactor control, due to a large number of channels in the core.At 01:23:04, by closing the steam valve to the turbine, the generator test started.An emergency event started at 01:23:40 when the operators turned on the AZ-5 button to shut down the reactor by inserting all control rods into the core.Contrary to the intention of the operator, a positive scram phenomenon led to a small power surge in the lower part of the core, damaging the nuclear fuels and channel tubes.
Following rupture of the channel tubes, a large amount of water vapor appeared at the core.Then, a bigger-scale power surge was caused by the effect of the positive void coefficient of reactivity, which led an explosion of the reactor and destruction of the building.According to the analysis after the accident, the explosion is believed to have occurred 6–7 s after turning on AZ-5.Eyewitnesses outside the reactor building said that there was a series of explosion-like fireworks reaching up into the night sky.(The above accident process is summarized from references 3 and 4 .
) Graphite in the reactor core began to burn after the initial explosion.This fire continued for more than ten days, releasing a large amount of the radioactivity that had accumulated in the core.The daily discharge of radioactivity (based on estimates in the 1986 USSR report 3 ) is shown in Fig.Values are for all radionuclides except rare gases and are decay-corrected to 26 April 1986.Daily release values are calculated by the current authors based on the hourly data in ref.
Fukushima-1 accident There were six boiling water reactor (BWR) units on the site of the Fukushima-1 NPS (Unit 1: 460 MWe; Units 2–5: 784 MWe; Unit 6: 1100 MWe).When the earthquake occurred at 14:46 on 11 March 2011, three units (Unit 1, Unit 2 and Unit 3) were operating in full power, and the remaining three were out of operation due to annual maintenance.On the arrival of seismic waves, all three operating units were successfully tripped by automatic insertion of control rods.However, the transmission line for the offsite power supply was broken due to a transmission tower falling down, as well as transformer damages at the substation.
In order to avoid blackout of the NPS, an Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) was automatically actuated at each unit.About 40 min later, a series of tsunami waves hit the Fukushima-1 NPS, with wave heights of more than 10 m.The anti-tsunami protection was designed for ∼6 m.All EDGs from Unit 1 to Unit 4 were located in the basement of the turbine buildings and flooded with seawater.Consequently, AC power was lost for cooling the reactor cores of Unit 1 to Unit 3.
In addition, the DC batteries also became unavailable in Unit 1 and Unit 2 for powering the process instruments and control valves.When the cooling system does not work after shutdown of the reactor, decay heat from fission products in the core will cause increase in both the temperature and the pressure of the coolant water, which will eventually result in meltdown of the reactor core and melt-through of the reactor vessel.In order to avoid such a situation, several emergency cooling systems working without AC power were installed in the BWR: an Isolation Condenser (IC) in Unit 1, a Reactor Core Isolation Cooling (RCIC) system in Units 2 and 3 and a High Pressure Core Injection (HPCI) system in Units 1 to 3.
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In reality, however, these emergency systems could not prevent further development of the situation, partly because the DC power necessary to actuate and control them was lost at Units 1 and 2, and partly because they were not designed to be effective for such a long period as was needed during the event in Fukushima-1.At Unit 1, its reactor core began to be damaged in the evening of 11 March, and a high Containment Vessel (CV) pressure of 840 kPa was recorded at midnight, which was about two times higher than the pressure for which it was designed (427 kPa).
It was clear that CV destruction at this stage would mean the worst situation at the NPS How to buy a paper atomic energy confidentially Undergrad. (yrs 1-2) Rewriting CSE 3 days.It was clear that CV destruction at this stage would mean the worst situation at the NPS.
Around 14:30 on 12 March, CV venting was finally carried out to reduce the CV pressure.Then at 15:36 a hydrogen explosion occurred inside the upper part of the reactor building Mice inhaled radon at a concentration of 2000 Bq/m 3 for 24 h or were given hot spring water for 2 weeks. The radon concentration in and drinking volume of water were monitored continuously at 2- or 3-day intervals (Table 2 ). This work was supported by Okayama University and Japan Atomic Energy Agency..Then at 15:36 a hydrogen explosion occurred inside the upper part of the reactor building.Core cooling of Unit 1 by fire engines started in the evening of 12 March Mice inhaled radon at a concentration of 2000 Bq/m 3 for 24 h or were given hot spring water for 2 weeks. The radon concentration in and drinking volume of water were monitored continuously at 2- or 3-day intervals (Table 2 ). This work was supported by Okayama University and Japan Atomic Energy Agency..
Core cooling of Unit 1 by fire engines started in the evening of 12 March.
At Unit 3, after the tsunami hit, core cooling was maintained by RCIC until 11:36 on 12 March.
After RCIC stopped, HPCI was automatically actuated and continued working until 02:42 on 13 March.Its core damage is believed to have begun on the morning of 13 March.PC venting was carried out several times on 13 March.At 11:01 on 14 March, a hydrogen explosion occurred inside the reactor building.At Unit 2 at the time the tsunami hit, the RCIC was working.
It continued to work without DC power until 13:25 on 14 March.Its core damage is believed to have begun on the evening of 14 March.CV venting was tried but was unsuccessful.A high CV pressure of 600 kPa was recorded during the night and this high pressure continued until the next morning.A rapid decrease in the CV pressure was observed at about 06:00 on 15 March, which indicated serious damage to the CV integrity of Unit 2.
This resulted in the largest radioactivity release that occurred during the course of the Fukushima-1 accident.The daily radioactivity discharge of 131 I and 134 Cs + 137 Cs from the Fukushima-1 NPS is shown in Fig.Radioactivity release The radioactivity released into the atmosphere for Chernobyl and Fukushima-1 is compared in Table1 .The estimates of the Chernobyl Forum 8 are a summary from various studies.
The UNSCEAR values 7 are mainly based on Terada et al .9 , which report itself is based on an inversion technique combining the monitoring data from the environment with the results of atmospheric transport simulation of released radioactivity.It is clear that the 131 I and 137 Cs release from Fukushima-1 was significantly less than from Chernobyl.Comparison of the findings of UNSCEAR and the Chernobyl Forum indicates that 131 I and 137 Cs releases from Fukushima-1 were 7% and 10% of the respective releases from Chernobyl.
The released radioactivity in the form of 90 Sr, 239 Pu and other radionuclides from Fukushima-1 is considered to be far less than that released from Chernobyl, which reflects the difference in the accident process.In the case of the Chernobyl accident, the explosion occurred inside the reactor core, and the reactor materials themselves (such as nuclear fuels and graphite blocks) were dispersed into the atmosphere.Thus, the composition of the radionuclides discharged from Chernobyl was similar to that found in the reactor core.In contrast to this, the reactor cores did not explode in Fukushima-1, and the radioactivity discharge was mostly composed of gaseous and volatile radionuclides emitted from the damaged and melted reactor cores.Two hydrogen explosions occurred at Fukushima-1 under the roof of the reactor building of Unit 1 and Unit 3, but they were not inside the CVs.
Far less discharge of 90 Sr and 239,240 Pu into the atmosphere from Fukushima-1 than Chernobyl was confirmed by the measurement of soil samples.Table2 shows 90 Sr, 239,240 Pu and 137 Cs contamination in soil samples taken in Iitate village 10 together with those taken in Kiev 11 .Deposition ratios of 90 Sr and 239,240 Pu, to −7 – 10 In regard to the long-term effects of radioactive contamination in the environment, 137 Cs is the most important radionuclide, both in Chernobyl and Fukushima-1.The size of area severely contaminated by 137 Cs for the two accidents is compared in Table3 12 , 13 .The contaminated area around Chernobyl is more than 10 times larger than Fukushima-1.
It is noteworthy, however, that although the Chernobyl NPS is surrounded by land, the eastern half of the surroundings of Fukushima-1 is in the Pacific Ocean, and most of the discharged radioactivity from Fukushima-1 is believed to have streamed toward the ocean, blown by the prevailing westerlies over Japan.−2 corresponds to criteria for compulsory resettlement and alienation, respectively, around Chernobyl.The radionuclide composition of the ground contamination within 100 km of the Chernobyl NPS is reported by Izrael et al.They indicate that the composition varies, depending on direction from the NPS and also on distance.In Table4 , the relative deposition ratios of major radionuclides to 137 Cs contributing gamma-ray exposure are shown for the near western area of the Chernobyl NPS, where the initial plume passed over on the first day of the accident.The relative deposition ratios around Fukushima-1 are also shown in Table4 (values are taken from UNSCEAR 7 ).137 Cs that contributed gamma-ray exposure at 1 m above ground Radionuclide137 Cs deposition of 1000 kBq m −2 for 90 days after the deposition.
Relative deposition ratios to 137 Cs are taken from Izrael et al 14 for near western area from Chernobyl NPS.Deposition ratios are taken from UNSCEAR 7 for all Japan except southern direction from Fukushima-1 NPS.The cumulative exposure normalized to the initial 137 Cs deposition of 1000 kBq m −2 is shown in Fig.
3 for the first 30 years after deposition, both for Chernobyl and Fukushima-1.Thick solid and thick dashed lines indicate the total exposure and the sum of the contributions from 134 Cs and 137 Cs, respectively, for Chernobyl.Thin solid and thin dashed lines indicate the equivalent values for Fukushima-1.The total cumulative exposure for the first year and the first 30 years are 500 and 970 mGy, respectively, for Chernobyl, whereas the values are 63 and 570 mGy for Fukushima-1.
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The difference in total radiation exposure between Chernobyl and Fukushima is mainly due to the exposure during the first year when 95 Z, 103 Ru and 140 La made a significant contribution.
The contribution of radiocesiums to the total exposure for the first year was 7.4 and 83% for Chernobyl and Fukushima-1, respectively 18 Jul 2017 - Printed on paper containing 75% recycled fibre content minimum. Printed in the UK by 2. United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority Annual Report and Accounts 2016-17. This has been a year of change and new beginnings for UKAEA. In October 2016, He already has impressive academic credentials .4 and 83% for Chernobyl and Fukushima-1, respectively.
For the period of 30 years the contributions have been calculated to be 49 and 98% for Chernobyl and Fukushima-1, respectively.137 Cs deposition of 1000 kBq m −2 up to 30 years after the deposition: Chernobyl and Fukushima-1.Solid lines indicate total exposure and dashed lines are sum of contribution from 134 Cs and 137 Cs.Thick lines and thin lines are for Chernobyl and Fukushima-1, respectively.From the point of long-term impact on the environment by the Fukushima-1 accident, our attention should be focused on radiation exposure from radiocesiums.The situation around Chernobyl is different from that around Fukushima-1 because radionuclides other than radiocesiums (e.
90 Sr and Pu isotopes) are believed to make a greater contribution at Chernobyl.We note that radioactive contamination in the Pacific Ocean by the Fukushima-1 accident has not been discussed here.Several studies on radioactivity release into the Pacific Ocean have been summarized by UNSCEAR 7 , but there are large areas of uncertainty.Considering the leakage of contaminated water continues to flow through an unknown underground path from the Unit buildings, more efforts are needed for study of the radioactivity release into the Pacific Ocean.
CONCLUSION The Chernobyl accident was a power-surge accident in which failure to control a fission chain reaction instantaneously destroyed the reactor and building, whereas the Fukushima-1 accident was a loss-of-coolant accident in which the reactor cores of three units were melted by decay heat after the loss of electricity.The differences in the accident processes are reflected in the composition of the ground contamination.Only volatile radionuclides (such as 132 Te- 134 Cs and 137 Cs) contributed gamma-ray exposure around Fukushima-1, but a variety of radionuclides contributed significantly around Chernobyl.At the time when the radioactivity deposition occurred, the radiation exposure rate near Chernobyl is estimated to have been 770 Gy h −1 per initial −2 , whereas it was 100 Gy h −1 around Fukushima-1.Estimates of the cumulative exposure for 30 years are 970 and 570 mGy per initial deposition of 1000 kBq m −2 for Chernobyl and Fukushima-1, respectively.
Of these exposures, 49 and 98% were contributed by radiocesiums ( 134 Cs + FUNDING This work was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI Grant No.Funding to pay the Open Access publication charges for this special issue was provided by the Grant-in-Aid from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI Grant No.REFERENCES Abstract Although radon therapy is indicated for hyperuricemia, the underlying mechanisms of action have not yet been elucidated in detail.
Therefore, we herein examined the inhibitory effects of radon inhalation and hot spring water drinking on potassium oxonate (PO)–induced hyperuricemia in mice.Mice inhaled radon at a concentration of 2000 Bq/m 3 for 24 h or were given hot spring water for 2 weeks.Mice were then administrated PO at a dose of 500 mg/kg.The results obtained showed that serum uric acid levels were significantly increased by the administration of PO.Radon inhalation or hot spring water drinking significantly inhibited elevations in serum uric acid levels through the suppression of xanthine oxidase activity in the liver.
Radon inhalation activated anti-oxidative functions in the liver and kidney.These results suggest that radon inhalation inhibits PO-induced hyperuricemia by activating anti-oxidative functions, while hot spring water drinking may suppress PO-induced elevations in serum uric acid levels through the pharmacological effects of the chemical compositions dissolved in it.INTRODUCTION Therapy using radon hot springs ( 222 Rn) is performed for pain- or respiratory-related diseases such as osteoarthritis 1 and bronchial asthma 2 in the Misasa Medical Center, Okayama University Hospital, Japan.Radon therapy is also performed in Europe, and speleotherapy has been reported to have endocrinological effects on respiratory diseases 3 .For example, a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials demonstrated the positive effects of radon therapy on pain in rheumatic diseases 5 .Theoretically, animals absorb radon through the lungs and skin.However, radon absorption through the skin has neither been rejected nor confirmed 3 .The mechanism of action of radon therapy has been suggested to involve radon being taken into the lungs via breathing, dissolving in the blood by gas exchange, being transported to many tissues systemically through the bloodstream, and having stimulatory effects in these tissues 6 .In an attempt to elucidate the mechanism of action of radon therapy, we previously developed a radon exposure system for small animals 7 .
We subsequently demonstrated that radon inhalation induced the production of anti-oxidant substances in many organs, such as the brain, heart, lung, liver, pancreas, kidney and small intestine of mice 8 , and also inhibited carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )–induced hepatopathy and renal damage 9 .These findings suggest that the anti-oxidative functions induced by radon inhalation contribute to the mitigation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)–related diseases.Drinking treatments are effective against not only pain-related diseases, but also against hyperuricemia due to their effects on purine and uric acid metabolism, and that the pharmacological effects of chemicals dissolved in hot spring water are much greater than from radon 10–13 .The concentrations of dissolved minerals (such as sodium bicarbonate and carbonates) in European hot springs were previously found to be 10-times higher than those in Japanese hot springs; therefore, drinking treatments in Europe only require approximately half of the volume needed in Japan 14 .However, the mechanisms of action of these treatments, particularly those of radon drinking treatments, currently remain unclear.
During the metabolism of purines, hypoxanthine and xanthine are oxidized to uric acid by the enzyme xanthine oxidase (XOD) 15 , 16 .XOD is distributed in various cells 17 , including not only vascular cells 18 , 19 , but also the liver, which is one of the major sources of ROS 20–23 .The liver and kidneys are exposed to oxidative stress through increases in serum uric acid levels 24 , and hyperuricemia has been found to be inhibited by the administration of anti-oxidants such as vitamin C 25 .The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the inhibitory effects of radon inhalation and hot spring water drinking treatments on potassium oxonate (PO)–induced hyperuricemia.
We focused on PO-induced oxidative stress because, as described above, the liver and kidneys are exposed to oxidative stress through increases in serum uric acid levels.
We examined the following biochemical parameters in order to assess the effects of radon treatments: serum uric acid levels, XOD activity in the liver, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, and total glutathione content (t-GSH) in the liver and kidneys.MATERIALS AND METHODS Animals Male ICR mice (8 weeks of age, body weight 32–38 g) were obtained from Charles River Laboratories Japan Inc.(Yokohama, Japan) for the radon inhalation treatment and from CLEA Japan Inc.(Tokyo, Japan) for the water drinking treatment.
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They were maintained in plastic cages under controlled conditions of temperature (22 ± 2°C), humidity (55 ± 10%), and light (12 h of light, 12 h of dark), and were given free access to food and water.
Ethics approval for all protocols and experiments was obtained from the Animal Experimental Committee of Okayama University.Experimental procedure Induction of hyperuricemia An animal model of hyperuricemia was induced by PO, a urate oxidase (uricase) inhibitor, because the PO model of hyperuricemia is widely perceived as a good experimental model The Atomic Energy Research Establishment, known as AERE or colloquially Harwell Laboratory, near Harwell, Oxfordshire, was the main centre for atomic energy research and development in the United Kingdom from the 1940s to the 1990s. Contents. [hide]. 1 Founding; 2 Early reactors; 3 Zeta; 4 Organisational .Experimental procedure Induction of hyperuricemia An animal model of hyperuricemia was induced by PO, a urate oxidase (uricase) inhibitor, because the PO model of hyperuricemia is widely perceived as a good experimental model.
Briefly, mice were intraperitoneally injected with PO (500 mg/kg body weight; Wako Pure Chemical Industry Co.Ltd, Osaka, Japan) after the radon inhalation or hot spring water drinking treatment.5% sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC-Na; Azuwann Co.Ltd, Osaka, Japan), which was freshly prepared before its administration.Control mice were manipulated in parallel with a 0 englishwritinghelp.com/homework/order-a-custom-civil-engineering-homework-british-academic-premium-no-plagiarism.Control mice were manipulated in parallel with a 0.Hot spring water drinking treatment Mice were randomly divided into the following nine groups based on the treatments and time-courses ( n = 8–9 for each group): distilled water drinking only (DW), radon-containing hot spring water drinking only (Water with Rn), radon-deaeration hot spring water drinking only (Water without Rn), distilled water drinking with the administration of PO (DW+PO), Rn-containing hot spring water drinking with the administration of PO (Water with Rn+PO) and Rn-deaeration hot spring water drinking with the administration of PO (Water without Rn+PO).
Mice were continuously fed distilled water, hot spring water containing radon, or radon deaeration hot spring water (from which radon was removed) for 2 weeks.Radon-containing hot spring water was obtained from the Misasa Medical Center, Okayama University Hospital, with attention to the water foaming and dissipation of radon.Radon-deaeration hot spring water was obtained by bubbling Rn-containing hot spring water using an air pump for ∼20 min to dissipate radon.After 2–3 days of storage, hot spring water was supplied to mice at room temperature.Drinking water was replaced three times a week.
Table1 shows the principal chemical compositions of hot spring water for the drinking treatment.The radon concentration in water was measured using a liquid scintillation counter.
The radon concentration in and drinking volume of water were monitored continuously at 2- or 3-day intervals (Table2 ).Mean radon concentrations in Rn-containing hot spring water and Rn-deaeration hot spring water were 338 ± 11 Bq/l and 1.4 Bq/l, respectively, at the initiation of the treatments (Table2 ).Element After the drinking treatments, hyperuricemia was induced in mice via the intraperitoneal (i.) administration of a single dose of PO (500 mg/kg body weight) in CMC-Na.Mice were sacrificed by an overdose of ether anesthesia 1.5 and 3 h after the administration of PO.
Blood was drawn from the heart for a serum analysis, and the livers and kidney were surgically excised and rinsed in 10 mM phosphate buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.4) buffer to analyze the activities of XOD, SOD and CAT, and the levels of t-GSH and proteins.Serum was separated by centrifugation at 3000 × g for 5 min for the uric acid assay.Samples were preserved at –80°C for later biochemical analyses.Radon inhalation treatment Mice were randomly divided into three groups ( n = 6 for each group): sham inhalation only (Control), sham inhalation with the administration of PO only (PO), and radon inhalation with the administration of PO (Rn+PO).
Mice were exposed to air only or radon for 24 h (using the radon exposure system we previously developed) and fed normal drinking water.Briefly, radon at a concentration of 2000 Bq/m 3 was blown into a mouse cage 26 ).The radon concentration in the cages was then determined by reference to radon therapy at the Misasa Medical Center, Okayama University Hospital 1 , 2 .Radon concentrations were measured using a radon monitor (CMR-510; Femto-Tech Inc.Radon concentrations in mouse cages are shown in Fig.The mean radon concentrations achieved by the inhalation treatments were ∼2000 Bq/m 3 (Fig.Changes in radon concentrations in the mouse cage over the period of radon inhalation using a radon inhalation system.Hyperuricemia was induced in mice after inhalation by the same method as that for the drinking treatment experiment.Blood was drawn from the heart 3 h after the administration of PO for a serum analysis, the livers and kidneys were surgically excised, and specimens were treated using similar procedures to those described for the drinking treatment experiment.Samples were preserved at –80°C for later biochemical analyses.
Samples were obtained from mice treated without PO immediately after inhalation, using the same procedures.Biochemical assays Serum uric acid levels were measured according to Takagi's modification of the phosphotungstic acid method described by Caraway et al .Briefly, serum was deproteinized by a mixture of phosphotungstic acid and sodium hydroxide solutions and centrifuged at 3000 × g at 4°C for 5 min.Deproteinized serum was collected, mixed with phosphotungstic acid and sodium carbonate solutions, and then incubated at 25°C for 25 min.
The optical density of the colored product, tungsten blue, was read at 710 nm using a spectrophotometer.All reagents and chemicals used for the uric acid assay were from Wako Pure Chemical Industries Co.XOD activity in the liver was measured using the Xanthine Oxidase Activity Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit (BioVision Inc., Milpitas, CA, USA) according to the manufacturer's recommendations.
Briefly, the liver was homogenized in XOD assay buffer and the homogenate was centrifuged at 16 000 × g at 4°C for 10 min in order to obtain a clear XOD extract.Supernatants were collected, mixed with the XOD enzyme mix, substrate mix, OxiRed™ Probe, and reaction mix, and the absorbance was then read at 570 nm using a spectrophotometer at 10-min intervals by incubating at 25°C for 30 min.In the XOD assay, protein concentrations were measured using the Lowry method with the Bio-Rad DC protein assay kit (Bio-Rad Laboratories Inc.
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Livers and kidneys were homogenized on ice in 10 mM PBS.
The homogenates were centrifuged at 12 000 × g at 4°C for 45 min and the supernatants were used to measure SOD and CAT activities.SOD activity was measured by the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction method 28 using the Wako-SOD test (Wako Pure Chemical Industry Co .SOD activity was measured by the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction method 28 using the Wako-SOD test (Wako Pure Chemical Industry Co.
Ltd, Osaka, Japan) according to the manufacturer's recommendations.Briefly, inhibition of the reduction of NBT was measured at 560 nm using a spectrophotometer Should i order an paper atomic energy privacy 139 pages / 38225 words CBE double spaced College Senior.Briefly, inhibition of the reduction of NBT was measured at 560 nm using a spectrophotometer.One unit of enzyme activity was defined as 50% inhibition of NBT reduction.
CAT activity was measured as the rate of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) reduction at 37°C at 240 nm using a spectrophotometer 29 .The assay mixture consisted of 50 l of 1 M Tris (tris-hydroxymethyl-aminomethane)-HCl buffer containing 5 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (pH 7.4), 900 l of 10 mM H 2 O 2 , 30 l of deionized water, and 20 l of the supernatant.CAT activity was calculated using a molar extinction coefficient of 7.The t-GSH content was measured using the Bioxytech GSH-420 assay kit (Oxis Health Products Inc., Portland, OR, USA) according to the manufacturer's recommendations.Briefly, liver and kidney samples were suspended in 10 mM PBS, and mixed with an ice-cold 7.5% trichloroacetic acid solution and homogenized.The homogenates were centrifuged at 3000 × g for 10 min.
The supernatants were then used in the assay.Protein concentrations were measured using the Bradford method 30 with the Protein Quantification Kit-Rapid (Dojindo Molecular Technologies Inc.Statistical analysis Data are presented as the mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM).Each experimental group consisted of samples from six to nine animals.
The significance of differences was determined by using Tukey's test and Dunnet's test for multiple comparisons.RESULTS Changes in drinking volume No significant differences were observed in drinking volumes throughout the experimental period between any of the treatment groups (Table2 ).Effects of hot spring water drinking on PO-induced hyperuricemia Serum uric acid levels were significantly higher ( P < 0.
01) in the DW+PO group than in the DW group 1.5 h after the administration of PO, whereas no significant differences were noted between the DW+PO group and the other groups (Water with Rn+PO or Water without Rn+PO groups).Serum uric acid levels were significantly higher ( P < 0.001) in the DW+PO group than in the DW group 3 h after the administration of PO.
However, serum uric acid levels were slightly lower in the Water with Rn+PO and Water without Rn+PO groups (Fig.
Effects of drinking hot spring water on serum uric acid levels and xanthine oxidase (XOD) activity in the liver of mice with potassium oxonate (PO)–induced hyperuricemia.The number of mice per experimental point is 8–9.05, Rn-containing hot spring water (Water with Rn) drinking with the administration of PO, or Rn-deaeration hot spring water (Water without Rn) drinking with the administration of PO vs DW drinking with the administration of PO.Effects of hot spring water drinking on XOD activity in mice with PO-induced hyperuricemia XOD activity in the liver was higher in the DW+PO group than in the DW group 1.
5 h after the administration of PO; however, no significant differences were observed between the DW+PO group and the other groups (Water with Rn+PO or Water without Rn+PO groups).XOD activity in the liver was significantly higher ( P < 0.05) in the DW+PO group than in the DW group 3 h after the administration of PO.However, XOD activity in liver was significantly lower ( P < 0.05) in the Water with Rn+PO group than in the DW+PO group (Fig.
Effects of hot spring water drinking on antioxidant-associated substances in the liver and kidney of mice with PO-induced hyperuricemia SOD activity in the liver at 3 h after the administration of PO was significantly higher ( P < 0.05) in the Water without Rn+PO group than in the Water with Rn+PO group.5 h after the administration of PO was significantly lower ( P < 0.
05) in the Water without Rn+PO group than in the Water with Rn+PO group.Furthermore, t-GSH content in the DW+PO group was significantly lower ( P < 0.05) at 3 h after the administration of PO than that of the group at 1.5 h after the administration of PO; however, no significant differences were noted between the DW+PO group and the other groups (Water with Rn+PO or Water without Rn+PO groups).In addition, the t-GSH content in the Water with Rn+PO group was significantly lower at 3 h after the administration of PO than that in the Water with Rn group ( P < 0.
5 h after the administration of PO ( P < 0.SOD activity in the kidney was significantly lower ( P < 0.
5 and 3 h after the administration of PO than in the DW group.However, it was significantly higher in the Water with Rn+PO (1.001) and in the Water without Rn+PO ( P < 0.
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Furthermore, at 3 h after the administration of PO, it was significantly higher ( P < 0.01) in the Water without Rn+PO group than in the Water with Rn+PO group.In addition, SOD activity in the Water with Rn+PO group was significantly lower ( P < 0 (successful) theses to get a feel for the product this market expects. A paper is read by one or more skilled referees, and, if accepted, by a scientifically-informed audience. This manual focuses on writing papers. The pages that follow explain how this market should be addressed. A research proposal usually addresses two .
In addition, SOD activity in the Water with Rn+PO group was significantly lower ( P < 0.
05) at 3 h after the administration of PO than in the Water with Rn group.CAT activity in the kidney was significantly lower ( P < 0 Engineering Science University of Oxford.CAT activity in the kidney was significantly lower ( P < 0.05) in the DW+PO group than in the DW group 3 h after the administration of PO; however, no significant differences were noted between the DW+PO group and the other groups (Water with Rn+PO or Water without Rn+PO groups).In addition, at 3 h after the administration of PO, CAT activity was significantly lower ( P < 0.05) in the Water with/without Rn+PO groups than in the Water with/without Rn groups.
The t-GSH content in the kidney was significantly lower ( P < 0.05) at 3 h after the administration of PO in the Water with Rn+PO group than in Water with Rn and that of the group at 1.001, Rn-containing hot spring water (Water with Rn) drinking with the administration of PO, or Rn-deaeration hot spring water (Water without Rn) drinking with the administration of PO vs DW drinking with the administration of PO.01, distilled water (DW) drinking with the administration of PO at 3 h after administration vs distilled water (DW) drinking with the administration of PO at 1.01, Rn-containing hot spring water (Water with Rn) drinking with the administration of PO at 3 h after administration vs Rn-containing hot spring water (Water with Rn) drinking only.001, Rn-containing hot spring water (Water with Rn) drinking with the administration of PO at 3 h after administration vs Rn-containing hot spring water (Water with Rn) drinking with the administration of PO at 1.05, Rn-deaeration hot spring water (Water without Rn) drinking with the administration of PO at 3 h after administration vs Rn-deaeration hot spring water (Water without Rn) drinking only.01, Rn-deaeration hot spring water (Water without Rn) drinking with the administration of PO vs Rn-containing hot spring water (Water with Rn) drinking with the administration of PO.Effects of radon inhalation on PO-induced hyperuricemia Since serum uric acid levels were higher in mice 3 h after the administration of PO than 1.5 h after, the former were subsequently used in radon inhalation experiments.Serum uric acid levels were significantly higher ( P < 0.001) in the PO group than in the Control group.
However, they were significantly lower ( P < 0.05) in the Rn+PO group than in the PO group (Fig.001, sham inhalation with the administration of PO vs control, # Effects of radon inhalation on XOD activity in mice with PO-induced hyperuricemia XOD activity in the liver was higher in the PO group than in the Control group, and was lower in the Rn+PO group than in the PO group (Fig.Effects of radon inhalation on antioxidant-associated substances in the liver and kidney of mice with PO-induced hyperuricemia SOD and CAT activities and t-GSH content in the liver and kidney were lower in the PO group than in the control group.05) in the liver were significantly higher in the Rn+PO group than in the PO group.No significant differences were observed in CAT activity in the liver among these groups.SOD activity and t-GSH content in the kidney were significantly higher ( P < 0.05) in the Rn+PO group than in the PO group.
No significant differences were detected in CAT activity in the kidney between these groups (Fig.# DISCUSSION Radon inhalation activates anti-oxidative functions in various organs, such as the brain, heart, lung, liver, pancreas and kidneys in mice and, thus, may contribute to the inhibition of oxidative stress-related diseases in these organs 8 .
We previously demonstrated that radon inhalation protected tissues from chemically induced oxidative damage 9 , 31 , indicating that radon inhalation activates a biological defense system in mouse tissues that inhibits oxidative stress-related diseases.However, the mechanisms of action of radon inhalation and hot spring water drinking on hyperuricemia currently remain unclear.Therefore, we herein examined the effects of radon inhalation and hot spring water drinking on PO-induced hyperuricemia.The results obtained showed that the administration of PO elevated serum uric acid levels.With the inhalation treatments, serum uric acid levels were significantly lower in the Rn+PO group than in the PO group.
With the drinking treatments, serum uric acid levels were slightly lower in the Water with Rn+PO and Water without Rn+PO groups than in the DW+PO group.Furthermore, no significant differences were observed in the volume of water consumption between any of the groups.Therefore, radon inhalation or water with/without radon drinking suppressed PO-induced hyperuricemia.These are probably due to the pharmacological effects of chemical compositions dissolved in hot spring water are much greater than the those of radon, because serum uric acid levels were similar between mice treated with Water with Rn and those treated with Water without Rn.
In an attempt to clarify the mechanisms suppressing hyperuricemia, XOD activity in the liver and antioxidant substances were investigated.
Excessive elevations in serum uric acid levels have been shown to produce ROS and oxidative damage 24 , 32 , which further increases xanthine and hypoxanthine levels as well as XOD activity in the liver.During the metabolism of purines, the production of ROS such as the superoxide radical (O 2 2 O 2 occurs through the formation of metabolic by-products from the oxidation of hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid by XOD 33 .Therefore, an increase in ROS or XOD activity contributes to elevations in uric acid levels.SOD plays an important role in protecting cells from oxidative damage by converting O 2 2 into H 2 O as well as GSH.Our results showed that the administration of PO increased XOD activity in the liver, which may have, in turn, enhanced oxidative stress and suppressed anti-oxidative functions.
Radon inhalation decreased XOD activity in the liver, indicating the inhibition of uric acid biosynthesis.SOD activity and the t-GSH content in the liver and kidney were significantly higher in the Rn+PO group than in the PO group, suggesting that radon inhalation suppresses PO-induced hyperuricemia by enhancing anti-oxidative functions and inhibiting uric acid biosynthesis in the liver.In the case of the drinking treatments, regardless of the suppression of XOD activity, elevations in uric acid levels were suppressed in both groups treated with water in the presence or absence of radon.Moreover, even in the same organ or group, no certain tendency for increase or decrease in the anti-oxidant-associated substances was observed to be dependent on the presence or absence of radon.
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Previous studies reported that drinking and bathing in hot spring water promotes the excretion of uric acid in the urine.
These findings indicate that various compositions dissolved in hot spring water play an important role in decreasing uric acid levels.However, further studies are needed in order to clarify the involvement of these compositions Best website to get a atomic energy paper Proofreading 20 days University 113 pages / 31075 words.However, further studies are needed in order to clarify the involvement of these compositions.
allopurinol) that inhibit uric acid biosynthesis or uricosuric drugs (e.
benzbromarone) that enhance the excretion of uric acid are typically used in the treatment of patients with hyperuricemia 34 , 35 , allopurinol is the only XOD inhibitor 36–38Culham Railway Station is only a few minutes' walk from the Science Centre's main entrance – from the station just follow the signs. There is a service connection to Oxford, Didcot and London (via Didcot), operated by First Great Western. Train frequency varies throughout the day so you are strongly advised to check the .benzbromarone) that enhance the excretion of uric acid are typically used in the treatment of patients with hyperuricemia 34 , 35 , allopurinol is the only XOD inhibitor 36–38 .However, allopurinol causes side effects in some patients with hepatic diseases, renal diseases, and allergic reactions 39–42Culham Railway Station is only a few minutes' walk from the Science Centre's main entrance – from the station just follow the signs. There is a service connection to Oxford, Didcot and London (via Didcot), operated by First Great Western. Train frequency varies throughout the day so you are strongly advised to check the .However, allopurinol causes side effects in some patients with hepatic diseases, renal diseases, and allergic reactions 39–42 .In the present study, we demonstrated that radon inhalation or hot spring water drinking exerted the same effects as allopurinol write me business communication paper PhD Standard Academic.In the present study, we demonstrated that radon inhalation or hot spring water drinking exerted the same effects as allopurinol.Therefore, radon inhalation or hot spring water drinking may assist the functions of allopurinol englishwritinghelp.com/paper/write-me-business-communication-paper-phd-standard-academic.
Therefore, radon inhalation or hot spring water drinking may assist the functions of allopurinol.
In conclusion, radon inhalation activated anti-oxidative functions and inhibited XOD activity in the liver.As a result, radon inhalation suppressed PO-induced elevations in serum uric acid levels via respiratory organs.On the other hand, hot spring water drinking suppressed PO-induced elevations in serum uric acid levels via digestive organs.The pharmacological effects are probably much larger due to the chemicals dissolved in hot spring water than from radon.Radon therapy is performed for various diseases at the Misasa Medical Center, Okayama University Hospital, Japan.
However, the mechanisms underlying the health effects achieved have not been investigated in detail.Our results suggest the potential of radon therapy for the prevention of hyperuricemia.Moreover, the mechanisms responsible for the inhibitory effects of radon inhalation and drinking water on hyperuricemia may differ.FUNDING ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors thank the staff at the Departments of Animal Resources and Radiation Research, Shikata Laboratory, Advanced Science Research Center, Okayama University for their technical support.REFERENCES 1947 - UK’s first nuclear reactor was built at Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE) Harwell to demonstrate the viability of commercial power reactors.
1954 - United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) established to carry out nuclear research; to develop atomic weapons deterrents and reactor technologies.1955 - UK government publish white paper titled A programme of nuclear power announcing the first purely commercial nuclear program.1956 - World’s first commercial nuclear reactor, Calder Hall 1 (MWe net: 50) at Windscale (later Sellafield) is opened by Queen Elizabeth II.The government says Britain has become "the first station anywhere in the world to produce electricity from atomic energy on a full industrial scale".- Suez crisis lead to a white paper titled Capital investment in the coal, gas and electricity industries which proposed increasing the nuclear build program.
1957 - Calder Hall 2 (MWe net: 50) connected to grid.- The government promises a nuclear power building programme that would achieve 5,000-6,000MW capacity by 1965.- Fire at Windscale (one of the reactors on the Sellafield site, England) ranked 5 out of 7 on the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale leading to the release of the radioactive isotope Iodine-131 which can cause cancers.Although people were not evacuated, milk from surrounding farmland was diluted and destroyed for the following month.Harold Macmillan, told the cabinet that he was suppressing the report that detailed the full extent of the disaster, defects in organisation and technical shortcomings.
The facts were not made public for 30 years.1958 1959 - Calder Hall 4 (MWe net: 50) connected to grid.- Chapelcross 1 (MWe net: 49), 2 (MWe net: 49) and 3 (MWe net: 49) connected to grid.1960 - Chapelcross 4 (MWe net: 49) connected to grid.- Government white paper scales back nuclear building plans to 3,000MW, acknowledging that coal generation is 25% cheaper.
1962 - Berkeley 1 (MWe net: 138) and 2 (MWe net: 138) and Bradwell 1 (MWe net: 123) and 2 (MWe net: 123) connected to grid.1964 - Hunterston A1 (MWe net: 160) and A2 (MWe net: 160) connected to grid.- A white paper titled The Second Nuclear Power Programme set out the next phase of the nuclear programme with 5000 MWe of capacity expected to come online between 1970 and - This begins the era of advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGR) after other designs are rejected.Minister for power Fred Lee tells the House of Commons: "We have won the jackpot this time, we have the greatest breakthrough of all times.
" 1965 - Hinkley Point A1 (MWe net: 235) and A2 (MWe net: 235), Trawsfynydd 1 (MWe net: 196) and 2 (MWe net: 196) and Dungeness A1 (MWe net: 225) and A2 (MWe net: 225) connected to grid.
1966 - Sizewell A1 (MWe net: 210) and A2 (MWe net: 210) connected to grid and commissioning of first prototype fast breeder reactor in Dounraey (Scotland).1967 - Fire and partial meltdown at Chapelcross with contamination contained in reactor core.1968 1971 - Wylfa 1 (MWe net: 490) and 2 (MWe net: 490) connected to grid.1976 - Hinkley Point B1 and B2 (both have MWe net capacity of 610 but operating at 70% (MWe: 430)) and Hunterston B1 and B2 (both have MWe net capacity of 610 but operating at 70% (MWe: 430)) connected to grid.1977 - The Central Electricity Generating Board describes AGR power stations as "one of the major blunders of British industrial policy.
" 1979 - Energy secretary David Howell announces 10 new pressurised water reactors (PWR) to be built, calling nuclear power "a cheaper form of electricity generation than any known to man".1982 - The Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (Nirex) was established by the nuclear industry in 1982 to research options for the deep geological disposal of radioactive waste.1983 - Dungeness B1 (MWe net: 545) first twin AGR station, Hartlepool 1 (MWe net: 595) and Heynsham I-1 (MWe net: 580) connected to grid.- Government forced to abandon dumping of low and intermediate-level nuclear waste in the Atlantic following pressure from environmental groups.- Heynsham II-1 (MWe net: 615) and II-2 (MWe net: 615) and Torness 1 (MWe net: 625) connected to grid.- The government decides to privatise electricity production and a "nuclear tax" is proposed.
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1989 - Berkeley 1 and Hunterston A2 shut-down.- Magnox reactors are withdrawn from electricity privatisation.The city refuses to buy the older stations because of decommissioning costs and the taxpayer is left with the bill 2 Oct 2017 - Mathematics; Electrical and information engineering; Structures, materials and dynamics; Energy systems; Engineering practical work. Assessment. Final University examinations, Part A: Four written papers; Assessment of Engineering practical work. 3rd year. Courses. Five optional Engineering courses .
The city refuses to buy the older stations because of decommissioning costs and the taxpayer is left with the bill.
- AGRs and Sizewell B are withdrawn from privatisation because city investors discover that the cost of generating nuclear power is far greater than that of coal.- A nuclear levy is introduced to cover the difference between the cost of generating nuclear energy and coal, adding 11% to electricity bills.- The cost of building Sizewell B increases from £1 Adjusting for energy intake what measure to use in nbsp Oxford Journals.- The cost of building Sizewell B increases from £1.1991 - Government announces plans for a nuclear waste repository costing between £2.1992 - International Atomic Agency says the building up of vast stocks of plutonium at reprocessing plants poses "a major political and security risk".
- It is revealed that the 11% nuclear levy on electricity bills has not been put aside for dealing with decommissioning costs and waste, but spent on building Sizewell B.Economists estimate that the projected income from the levy between 1990-98 will represent a £9.1994 - THORP Nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield (England) opened.
- Government announces nuclear reviews, one into whether new nuclear stations can be built and the second into whether the industry can be privatised.1995 - Sizewell B (MWe net: 1188) connected to grid after lengthy 7 year construction and public enquiry and is such the last nuclear reactor built to date in the UK.- A paper titled Review of the Future Prospects for Nuclear Power in the UK suggested moving most of nuclear energy industry to the private sector would bring about benefits for industry, consumers and taxpayers.- Government decides to make a second attempt to privatise AGRs and the still-to-be-completed Sizewell B.1997 - Two nuclear waste stores are to be built at Sellafield, to take intermediate-level waste for the next 50 years.
1998 - Deputy prime minister John Prescott signs agreement to progressively reduce concentrations of radioactive substances in the marine environment as a result of emissions from Sellafield.Late-1990s - Nuclear energy in the UK is at a peak, contributing around 25% of the UK’s energy needs.2000 - Hinkley Point A1 and A2 shut-down.- British Nuclear Fuels chief executive, John Taylor, resigns over a scandal relating to faked safety records at the Sellafield plant in Cumbria.
2001 - Managing Radioactive Waste Safely (MRWS) initiated by the government with a public consultation process which led to the setting up of the Committee on Radioactive Waste Management (CoRWM) to recommend options to provide a long-term solution to managing higher activity radioactive wastes in the UK.- The New Electricity Trading Arrangements announced by the government led to considerable overcapacity due to the recent construction of gas-fired power stations.This was one of the factors that led to the collapse of British Energy who had been the country’s largest generator by 1998.2002 2003 - Calder Hall 1, 2, 3, 4 shut down.- UK Government’s energy white paper highlighted that nuclear energy was a useful source of carbon-free electricity but that there were issues over nuclear waste.
It made no plans to build new nuclear power stations but made the point that they might be required in the future to meet our growing carbon-free energy needs.2004 - Chapelcross 1, 2, 3 and 4 shut-down.- The European commission launches legal action against the government over "unacceptable" failings in dealing with nuclear waste at Sellafield.2005 - BNFL transferred all of its nuclear sites to the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority.
- CoRWM recommends deep geological disposal of high- and intermediate-level wastes long-term with about one-third of the UK appears to be geologically suitable.
- The government's chief scientific adviser, Sir David King, voices his support for a nuclear power revival, saying there are economic as well as environmental reasons for a new generation of reactors.2006 - Dungeness A1 and A2 and Sizewell A1 and A2 shut-down.- The Sustainable Development Commission warns Tony Blair that there is "no justification" for a new nuclear programme.- The government's environment audit committee warns that a new generation of nuclear power stations would not be able to avert a serious energy crisis.The government has become "too focused" on nuclear energy, it says.
- The new white paper confirms that nuclear power is back on the agenda.It says a mix of energy supplies is essential and that new nuclear power stations could make a significant contribution.The review says it will be up to the private sector to cover the costs of investment, decommissioning and storage of nuclear waste.ON and EDF welcome what they call an "important milestone".
- Greenpeace launched a court action claiming that the government's consultation was "legally flawed".2007 - Energy white paper states that its in the public interest to allow private sector investment in new nuclear power stations.- Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) establishes the Radioactive Waste Management Directorate (RWMD) to take responsibility for the geological disposal facility programme.- Greenpeace wins its case and government launches a new consultation, which includes plans to treble the amount of electricity from renewable sources and signals a return to the government's nuclear agenda.- A Guardian/ICM poll shows opponents of nuclear energy narrowly outnumber supporters, by 49% to 44%.
- New prime minister, Gordon Brown, calls for an acceleration of nuclear power in a speech to business leaders.2008 - Half a million people in the UK hit by power cuts as seven power stations, including Sizewell B, unexpectedly stop working.- In a speech to EU states, Gordon Brown calls for eight new nuclear plants to be built in as part of a 'nuclear renaissance' in the UK.