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Most students find the structure of a lab report fairly straightforward, but may have problems with grammar and style which are explained below Jump to Best websites to purchase an laboratory report engineering us letter - By working with our service, you are welcome to negotiate all paper details with the writers you like and make sure they Technologies Program Study com Need to get a research paper urban studies Platinum one day single .Most students find the structure of a lab report fairly straightforward, but may have problems with grammar and style which are explained below.
Mistake 1: Writing the abstract before the rest of the gh the abstract is the first section, you are advised to write it last because it summarises the whole report 18 Aug 2011 - Career: Industrial demolitions Learn to: Blow things up extremely well Students learn how to implode buildings, design fireworks displays, blast3 of 25.University of California at Berkeley: Robotics and Human Engineering Laboratory Get professional writing services from us at a student friendly price nbsp.University of California at Berkeley: Robotics and Human Engineering Laboratory.Career: Roboticist Learn to: Put disabled patients back on their feetGet professional writing services from us at a student friendly price nbsp.Career: Roboticist Learn to: Put disabled patients back on their feet.Although the abstract is the first section, you are advised to write it last because it summarises the whole is usually evident when an abstract has been written before the rest of the report because it goes into unnecessary detail, and can even contain information that is not found in the rest of the report 18 Aug 2011 - Career: Industrial demolitions Learn to: Blow things up extremely well Students learn how to implode buildings, design fireworks displays, blast3 of 25 englishwritinghelp.com/paper/buy-an-it-paper-american-single-spaced-phd-privacy.
Although the abstract is the first section, you are advised to write it last because it summarises the whole is usually evident when an abstract has been written before the rest of the report because it goes into unnecessary detail, and can even contain information that is not found in the rest of the report 18 Aug 2011 - Career: Industrial demolitions Learn to: Blow things up extremely well Students learn how to implode buildings, design fireworks displays, blast3 of 25.
University of California at Berkeley: Robotics and Human Engineering Laboratory.Career: Roboticist Learn to: Put disabled patients back on their feet.It is usually evident when an abstract has been written before the rest of the report because it goes into unnecessary detail, and can even contain information that is not found in the rest of the e 2: Tense The table below presents general guidelines for tense use: Abstract Because the abstract is a summary, the tenses will reflect those used in the original sections of the report.Introduction The past simple is used to refer to previous experiments uction The past simple is used to refer to previous als and Methods The past simple is mainly used for experimental procedure because the experiment happened in the past and is finished.
Technical report writing guidelines dutchess community college However, the present simple may be used to explain a figure, equation or model, or to explain the permanent qualities of a material being s The present simple is used to explain what a table shows, the past simple to state what the findings were.
Discussion Modal verbs, such as ‘may’, ‘might’ and ‘should’, are often used and these do not show tense Do My Lab Report For Me Academic Writing Service in Canada nbsp.Discussion Modal verbs, such as ‘may’, ‘might’ and ‘should’, are often used and these do not show tense.Conclusion The past simple is used to state what was done or verbs might be used to suggest further study or add caution How to get a laboratory report engineering two hours A4 (British/European) Business verbs might be used to suggest further study or add e 3: Style You should avoid using personal language or commanding the g in the passive helps overcome both these problems, but it needs to be used with care / .Writing in the passive helps overcome both these problems, but it needs to be used with care.Avoiding personal language You should usually avoid using personal pronouns such as I and is often achieved by using the passive rather than the active.
Help me write my laboratory report engineering 48 hours us letter size double spaced cbe Informing rather than commanding the reader Because students are aware of the need to avoid personal language and because of the language used in lab instructions, some students command the reader; for example, “attach the weight”.This can also be avoided by using the passive.See ‘Useful Downloads’ for more information on how to form the passive TECHNICAL/ENGINEERING STUDENTS.This document specifies the recommended format to be used when submitting a formal technical report in a variety of disciplines and purposes.
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I suggest you write about an area that most interests you and in which you might already have some background do you want to learn more about? What are you interested in? Avoid choosing a topic that bores ned interest in your topic is important, as a topic that bores you makes for a boring is unlikely you will be able to fool the reader into believing you liked a topic that you didn’t actually , narrow down your topic:Once you’ve chosen a topic, ask yourself if it’s narrow enough for you to tackle in the paper or honors thesis you will be writing.Narrow topics generally result in the best important consideration is the availability of ore, before making a final decision on your topic, do some initial research to find out the type, quality, and quantity of information y, how much time do you have to write your paper? The earlier you begin your paper, the more thorough the treatment your topic will you can’t begin your paper early in the semester, consider limiting your topic so you can deal with it adequately.•PART 2 OF THE ASSIGNMENT: THESIS STATEMENT What is a thesis statement?A thesis statement is “a proposition stated as a conclusion which you will then demonstrate or ‘prove’ in your paper.”It is the focal point around which your research will is usually stated in the form of an assertion or statement you resolve through your ’s not a question; it’s an answer, such as: “Key decisions in large U.cities are made by a handful of individuals, drawn largely from business, industrial, and municipal circles, who occupy the top of the power hierarchy.
” “Cigarette smoking harms the body by constricting the blood vessels, accelerating the heartbeat, paralyzing the cilia in the bronchial tubes, and activating excessive gastric secretions in the e you must take a position or develop a claim about a subject, you need to convey that position or claim in a thesis statement in your research is different from a topic sentence in that a thesis statement is not neutral.
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It announces, in addition to the topic, the argument you want to make or the point you want to is your own opinion that you intend to back is your reason and motivation for writing.A thesis statement: i)tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter under )is a road map for the paper; in other words, it tells the reader what to expect from the rest of the paper.iii)directly answers the question asked of you daily 0.9 http://homeboutique.info/research-proposal/get-an-international-affairs-research-proposal-premium-us-letter-size-single-spaced-100-plagiarism-free http://homeboutique.info/paper/where-to-order-an-engineering-technologies-paper-double-spaced-turabian-writing-from-scratch-plagiarism-free 2017-12-15 .iii)directly answers the question asked of you.
A thesis is an interpretation of a question or subject, not the subject subject, or topic, of an essay might be World War II or Moby Dick; a thesis must then offer a way to understand the war or the )makes a claim that others might dispute.
v)is usually a single sentence somewhere in your first paragraph that presents your argument to the reader Should i buy a custom homework geology American Standard Academic 127 pages / 34925 words.v)is usually a single sentence somewhere in your first paragraph that presents your argument to the reader.The rest of the paper, the body of the essay, gathers and organizes evidence that will persuade the reader of the logic of your you have done some preliminary research and reading on your narrowed-down topic, you should formulate a single-sentence thesis g in college often takes the form of persuasion – convincing others that you have an interesting, logical point of view on the subject you are sion is a skill you practice regularly in your daily persuade your roommate to clean up, your parents to let you borrow the car, your friend to vote for your favorite candidate or policy.In college, course assignments often ask you to make a persuasive case in are asked to convince your reader of your point of form of persuasion, often called academic argument, follows a predictable pattern in a brief introduction of your topic, you state your point of view on the topic directly and often in one sentence is the thesis statement, and it serves as a summary of the argument you’ll make in the rest of your paper.What is the purpose of the thesis statement?The thesis statement guides you, enabling you to focus your research paper and outline what you will allows you to clarify your thinking and determine what is relevant and irrelevant as you do your research paper must be thesis-driven.A high school level “report” will not receive a passing grade.
The thesis must pull together the analysis that follows.Best websites to get an wwii research proposal premium single spaced 16 pages / 4400 words 3 days Your thesis statement must be specific – it should cover only what you will discuss in your research paper and must be supported with specific thesis statement usually appears at the end of the first paragraph of a in your paper I should be able to locate the thesis statement How to purchase an wwii research proposal no plagiarism CSE US Letter Size Standard in your paper I should be able to locate the thesis statement.If I ask you “Where is the thesis statement?” you should be able to point to it do you come up with a thesis statement?A thesis is the result of a lengthy thinking process and careful deliberation after preliminary research Introduction 6.Aids to locating and analysing problems 24.• The next step: find your research problem.How do you come up with a thesis statement?A thesis is the result of a lengthy thinking process and careful deliberation after preliminary research.Formulating a thesis is not the first thing you do after reading a writing you develop an argument on any topic, you have to collect and organize evidence, look for possible relationships between known facts (such as surprising contrasts or similarities), and think about the significance of these you do this thinking, you will probably have a “working thesis,” a basic main idea, an argument that you think you can support with evidence but that may need adjustment along the topic may change somewhat as you write, so you may need to revise your thesis statement to reflect exactly what you have discussed in the Statement Samples: 1)The non-thesis thesis: You must take a stand or you’ll end up with a “non-thesis thesis.
” a)Bad Thesis 1: In his article, Stanley Fish shows that we don’t really have the right to free speech.b)Bad Thesis 2: This paper will consider the advantages and disadvantages of certain restrictions on free speech.c)Better Thesis 1: Stanley Fish’s argument that free speech exists more as a political prize than as a legal reality ignores the fact that even as a political prize it still serves the social end of creating a general cultural atmosphere of tolerance that may ultimately promote free speech in our nation just as effectively as any binding law.d)Better Thesis 2: Even though there may be considerable advantages to restricting hate speech, the possibility of chilling open dialogue on crucial racial issues is too great and too high a price to pay.2)The overly broad thesis: A thesis should be as specific as possible, and it should be tailored to reflect the scope of the paper.
It is not possible, for instance, to write about the history of English literature in a five-page addition to choosing simply a smaller topic, strategies to narrow a thesis include specifying a method or perspective or delineating certain limits.a)Bad Thesis 1: There should be no restrictions on the First Amendment.b)Bad Thesis 2: The government has the right to limit free speech.c)Better Thesis 1: There should be no restrictions on the First Amendment if those restrictions are intended merely to protect individuals from unspecified or otherwise unquantifiable or unverifiable “emotional distress.” d)Better Thesis 2: The government has the right to limit free speech in cases of overtly racist or sexist language because our failure to address such abuses would effectively suggest that our society condones such ignorant and hateful views.
3)The incontestable thesis: A thesis must be in order for it to be arguable, it must present a view that someone might reasonably mes a thesis ultimately says, “people should be good,” or “bad things are bad.” Such thesis statements are redundant or so universally accepted that there is no need to prove the point.a)Bad Thesis 1: Although we have the right to say what we want, we should avoid hurting other people’s feelings.b)Bad Thesis 2: There are always alternatives to using racist speech.c)Better Thesis 1: If we can accept that emotional injuries can be just as painful as physical ones we should limit speech that may hurt people’s feelings in ways similar to the way we limit speech that may lead directly to bodily harm.
d)Better Thesis 2: The “fighting words” exception to free speech is not legitimate because it wrongly considers speech as an action.4)The “list essay” thesis: A good argumentative thesis provides not only a position on an issue but also suggests the structure of the paper.The thesis should allow the reader to imagine and anticipate the flow of the paper, in which a sequence of points logically proves the essay’s main assertion.A list essay provides no such structure, so that different points and paragraphs appear arbitrary with no logical connection to one another.a)Bad Thesis 1: There are many reasons we need to limit hate speech.
b)Bad Thesis 2: Some of the arguments in favor of regulating pornography are persuasive.c)Better Thesis 1: Among the many reasons we need to limit hate speech the most compelling ones all refer to our history of discrimination and prejudice, and it is, ultimately, for the purpose of trying to repair our troubled racial society that we need hate speech legislation.d)Better Thesis 2: Some of the arguments in favor of regulating pornography are persuasive because they ask pornography proponents to ask themselves whether such a profession would be on a list of professions they would desire for their daughters or mothers.5)The research paper thesis: In another course this would be acceptable, and, in fact, possibly even in this kind of course, a thesis statement that makes a factual claim that can be verified only with scientific, sociological, psychological, or other kind of experimental evidence is not need to construct a thesis that you are prepared to prove using the tools you have available, without having to consult the world’s leading expert on the issue to provide you with a definitive judgment.a)Bad Thesis 1: Americans today are not prepared to give up on the concept of free speech.
b)Bad Thesis 2: Hate speech can cause emotional pain and suffering in victims just as intense as physical battery.
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d)Better Thesis 2: The various arguments against the regulation of hate speech depend on the unspoken and unexamined assumption that emotional pain is do I know if my thesis is strong?If there’s time, run it by a professor or make an appointment at the Writing Center to get some feedback ( /writingcenter/ ).Even if you do not have time to get advice elsewhere, you can do some thesis evaluation of your own.When reviewing your first draft of your working thesis, ask yourself the following: 1)Do I answer the question? Re-reading the question prompt after constructing a working thesis can help you fix an argument that misses the focus of the question 2017-12-15 daily 0.9 https://barrykang.com/homework/where-to-get-an-applied-mathematics-homework-us-letter-size-custom-writing-9-days 2017-12-15 daily 0.9 https://barrykang.com/dissertation/who-can-help-me-write-an-engineering-technologies-dissertation-american-single-spaced-academic 2017-12-15 daily 0.9 .When reviewing your first draft of your working thesis, ask yourself the following: 1)Do I answer the question? Re-reading the question prompt after constructing a working thesis can help you fix an argument that misses the focus of the question.
2)Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose? If your thesis simply states facts that no one would, or even could, disagree with, it’s possible that you are simply providing a summary, rather than making an argument.
3)Is my thesis statement specific enough? Thesis statements that are too vague often do not have a strong your thesis contains words like “good” or “successful,” see if you could be more specific: why is something “good”; what specifically makes something “successful”? 4)Does my thesis pass the “So what?” test? If a reader’s first response is, “So what?” then you need to clarify, to forge a relationship, or to connect to a larger issue.5)Does my essay support my thesis specifically and without wandering? If your thesis and the body of your essay do not seem to go together, one of them has to change.It’s okay to change your working thesis to reflect things you have figured out in the course of writing your er, always reassess and revise your writing as necessary englishwritinghelp.com/dissertation/best-websites-to-buy-an-trade-dissertation-undergraduate-custom-writing-single-spaced.It’s okay to change your working thesis to reflect things you have figured out in the course of writing your er, always reassess and revise your writing as necessary.6)Does my thesis pass the “how and why?” test? If a reader’s first response is “how?” or “why?” your thesis may be too open-ended and lack guidance for the what you can add to give the reader a better take on your position right from the Date Paper Topic Proposal and Thesis Statement Proposed paper topic: One the topic is interesting and important: Two to three details above on what is required of this to Write a Query Letter Tips on how to craft the perfect query letter Writing a pitch or query letter is the first step to getting published.Agents and editors read query letters to find new material they are interested in selling or publishing.
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2Monday, December 19, 2016 This report provides 50 policy actions the Trump administration and Congress can take to bolster America’s technology transfer, commercialization, and innovation capacity, from the local to the national recommendations include: Strengthen innovation districts and regional technology clusters scott andes Innovation is key to increasing economic growth and wages in the moderate to long innovation does not fall like “manna from heaven,” as economists once is the product of intentional human action, and, to have more of it, we must enact public policies that connect research and development investments to firms and inventors in the communities where they are seven years of growth following the end of the Great Recession and after over 70 straight months of employment growth, there is a case to be made that the country has rebounded and the main thrust of economic policy should focus on those who have been left behind.But the reason so many Americans aren’t seeing their wages rise fast enough isn’t just because they’ve been left behind, it’s because the country as a whole isn’t moving ahead fast ’s certainly true the labor market has begun to inch closer to full employment (in fact, in December 2016 the unemployment rate dropped to 4.Competition for japan scholars wilson center 6 percent), but that’s far from a leading indicator of the health of the U.For the reality is the economy still has a long way to go to return to its full ment growth in the 36 months following the trough of the recession was the slowest of the 11 post-World War II recoveries, and average productivity growth was twice as high in the four decades following World War II as it has been since the end of the Great Recession Abstract apa format science fair presentation outline the great gatsby essay prompt business plan single or double spaced.Leukemia research paperHow to write a personal strategic plan boarding stable business plan free research papers on enron cell essay skills to list on resume for sales.
Employment growth in the 36 months following the trough of the recession was the slowest of the 11 post-World War II recoveries, and average productivity growth was twice as high in the four decades following World War II as it has been since the end of the Great Recession.3 Brookings economists Martin Baily and Nicholas Montalbano describe the country’s productivity growth as “weak since 2004 and dismal since 2010.” 4 And as the Information Technology and Innovation Foundation (ITIF) reports, U Government funding for academic research will remain limited, and competition for grants will remain high.Broad adjustments will be needed—and here's a plan.
Science policy analysts have focused recently on the federal budget sequester and the dramatic effects it could have on funding scientific R&D in U.” 4 And as the Information Technology and Innovation Foundation (ITIF) reports, U.productivity growth over the last decade is the lowest since the government started recording the data in the late 1940s Government funding for academic research will remain limited, and competition for grants will remain high.
Broad adjustments will be needed—and here's a plan.Science policy analysts have focused recently on the federal budget sequester and the dramatic effects it could have on funding scientific R&D in U.productivity growth over the last decade is the lowest since the government started recording the data in the late 1940s.
5 Yet if the United States could boost its productivity levels by even just one percentage point, it could make the economy $2.3 trillion bigger than it is otherwise projected to be in 10 years while shrinking the federal budget deficit by more than $400 billion /laboratory-report/need-to-get-anthropology-laboratory-report-proofreading-american-cbe-quality.3 trillion bigger than it is otherwise projected to be in 10 years while shrinking the federal budget deficit by more than $400 billion.
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6 America’s innovation economy exists at three levels: technological, industrial, and ile, other countries are increasing their technological sophistication, capturing crowded international markets and pushing U.And whereas once America’s leading technology competitors were largely isolated to Western Europe and Japan, today many developing nations are crafting innovation strategies designed to wrest leadership in advanced technology categories such as life sciences, clean energy, new materials, flexible electronics, computing and the internet, and advanced manufacturing.
As evidence of these trends, the United States has run a trade deficit in advanced technology products every year since 2002; the cumulative deficit since 2010 is $580 billion Sitemap Get professional essay writing help on our website at a good nbsp.As evidence of these trends, the United States has run a trade deficit in advanced technology products every year since 2002; the cumulative deficit since 2010 is $580 billion.
7 Improving America’s capacity to innovate is a key step toward confronting these a’s innovation economy exists at three levels: technological, industrial, and innovation occurs in particular technology areas, for example life science innovation funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), additive manufacturing supported by America Makes, and composite and lightweight materials supported by the Institute for Advanced Composites Manufacturing Innovation (IACMI) and the Lightweight Innovations for Tomorrow (LIFT) Institutes for Manufacturing Innovation, respectively.Innovation also occurs across firms in the same industries that collaborate to drive technology advancements (e Who can help me write an engineering laboratory report american 3 nbsp.Innovation also occurs across firms in the same industries that collaborate to drive technology advancements (e.For this reason, sector- and technology-based innovation policies and programs like Manufacturing USA’s Institutes of Manufacturing Innovation and the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy do an effective job targeting R&D spatial level of innovation includes not just hot spots like Silicon Valley; Austin, Texas; or Boston, but also scores of communities throughout the country in places like Chattanooga, are intensively developing their innovation ecosystems at the regional , as ITIF has shown, innovation occurs in all of America’s 435 congressional districts.8 This dispersion matters because regional technology clusters engender concentrated knowledge flows and spillovers, workers with specialized skills, and dense supply chains that improve firm R&D-intensive firms benefit from proximity to innovation resources such as universities and federal laboratories, and this closeness produces myriad “ecosystem” benefits.
9 This is particularly the case for knowledge spillovers—the ability of workers and firms to learn from one another without incurring research shows that the value of proximity for firms and workers to share ideas attenuates extremely quickly with example, Rosenthal and Strange find that, for software companies, the spillover benefits are 10 times greater when firms are within one mile of each other than when they are two and five miles apart, and by 10 miles there are no more within-city localization benefits englishwritinghelp.com/thesis/best-website-to-get-an-it-management-thesis-58-pages-15950-words-single-spaced-10-days-high-quality.9 This is particularly the case for knowledge spillovers—the ability of workers and firms to learn from one another without incurring research shows that the value of proximity for firms and workers to share ideas attenuates extremely quickly with example, Rosenthal and Strange find that, for software companies, the spillover benefits are 10 times greater when firms are within one mile of each other than when they are two and five miles apart, and by 10 miles there are no more within-city localization benefits.10 In other words, to be effective, technology policy needs to focus not just on the first two levels, technology and industry, but also on the spatial—the central component of an effective national technology policy system is robust government funding of scientific and engineering in that respect, the United States is the federal government invested as much in R&D today as a share of GDP as it did in 1983, we would be investing over $65 billion more per year.11 Unfortunately, given budget and political constraints, the Trump administration and the forthcoming 115th Congress may find it difficult to significantly increase overall federal investment in science and despite the fact that doing so would be a wise investment, as economists estimate that a 1 percent increase in the U.12 But regardless, one thing on which America should be able to achieve bipartisan consensus is the need to find ways to increase the return on investment from existing resources and follows are 50 policy recommendations President Trump and Congress can enact to improve the economic impact of existing resources (with some modest additional investments).Many of these recommendations could be added to the COMPETES-related reauthorization legislation currently being considered in both the House and recommendations are divided into five categories: strengthening innovation districts and regional technology clusters; launching or extending institutions supporting America’s innovation economy; facilitating technology transfer and commercialization activities; promoting the formation of high-growth firms; and stimulating private-sector recommendations are the output of a joint research effort between the Brookings Institution and and how federal R&D policy impacts local economies The federal government invests $146 billion a year in R&D, and whether these dollars are directed to military bases, federal laboratories, universities, or small technology firms, they come to ground in communities and play a critical role in local technological l investments often drive high-skilled employment, fund local universities and hospitals, support high-tech entrepreneurs, and lead to exports from large companies—all of which bring outside dollars and jobs into a region.
To maximize and capture the benefits of R&D within regional economies, mayors, regional economic developers, and philanthropic and private-sector leaders should understand their federal research , regions should take stock of their portfolios as they would any other asset do so, regional leaders need to understand how the federal government funds government allocates R&D through federal most agencies have some level of R&D budget, 84 percent of funding flow from the Department of Defense (DoD), the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), the Department of Energy (DoE), and the National Science Foundation (NSF).These agencies have different areas of investment and different funding vehicles that impact local Department of Defense: With 49 percent of all federal R&D, DoD represents the largest federal investor in DoD’s size is not the only reason the department matters for local other federal agency has such a quasi-fiduciary relationship with the commercial outcomes of its own R&D pursues basic and applied research through its dozens of labs located in 22 states and then transfers that research to firms that create products and services for the military.For regions, DoD funding often implies near-to-market engineering, computer science, and material research that local firms can utilize to meet defense and civilian research partnerships are conducted predominantly through large defense contractors and less often with small and medium-sized firms.13The Department of Health and Human Services: DHHS invests over $32 billion every year in research, the vast majority of which is conducted by and through the National Institutes of primary vehicle for NIH R&D is competitive grants: currently more than 80 percent of NIH funding is awarded through 50,000 grants to more than 300,000 researchers at universities, medical schools, and other research research dollars touch every state and almost every city, and so the agency is ideally situated to play an important role in improving the return on investment of federal R&D at the local level.Also, because the lion’s share of investment comes from NIH’s grants to research universities and medical schools, as opposed to being spent at its own labs, NIH is in a unique position to incentivize commercialization across the U.
Finally, through its investments in teaching hospitals, NIH represents a critical employment driver for local communities.The Department of Energy: DoE invests heavily in its 17 federal laboratories across the country.Though the labs are not located in dense regional technology clusters, they exist at the frontiers of science and often partner with universities, firms, and other research institutions to improve product development in industries such as aerospace, automobiles, battery storage, and information s with companies and institutions that have DoE partnerships are often at the cutting edge of technology and are ideally situated for high-value technology exports.Who can help me write a college research proposal wwii british single spaced academic 2 days The National Science Foundation: NSF is an independent federal agency that invests specifically in basic science and engineering and scientific other agencies that focus on specific missions (e.
, defense, health, energy), NSF has a broad mandate to fund discovery, learning, and the research infrastructure across scientific domains Operations Research is a splendid area for graduates of mathematics to use their knowledge and skills in creative ways to solve complex problems and have anOR became an established discipline during World War II, when the British government recruited scientists to solve problems in critical military operations.
, defense, health, energy), NSF has a broad mandate to fund discovery, learning, and the research infrastructure across scientific domains.Like NIH, the primary funding vehicle for NSF is its competitive grants that are distributed across the nation’s educational, training, and research represents roughly one-quarter of federal investments in basic science at U 16 Nov 2017 - business plan writing services los angelesSignificant figures homework help help me do my science homework do my admission essay be double or single spaced do my homewirk admissionOs mapzone homework help help writing phd research proposal money back essay service custom represents roughly one-quarter of federal investments in basic science at U.universities and collegesBy understanding what government funding flows to their respective regions and then how to leverage agencies’ distinct funding vehicles, leaders can better maximize the local influence of R&D.Strengthen innovation districts and regional technology clusters Regional technology clusters are a key driver of economic growth and should be viewed by the incoming administration and Congress as a critical component of innovation -scale manufacturing clusters can be found in suburban research parks and key agriculture technology clusters in many rural areas throughout the United many technology sectors—particularly life sciences, software and digital design, and robotics—the geography of innovation is in these industries are now beginning to relocate research activities into employment-dense areas of cities (generally the downtowns and midtowns) to be in greater proximity to other firms, universities, and research labs.14 Companies are also realizing that attracting and retaining talented workers increasingly means situating themselves in amenity-rich places where their workers want to live.
The result has been a rise of “innovation districts,” defined by the Brookings Institution as “geographic areas where leading anchor institutions and companies cluster and connect with are physically compact, transit- and broadband-accessible, and offer mixed-use housing, office, and retail.15 Innovation districts are critical to the nation’s innovation capacity because they are home to some of the country’s leading universities, research labs, and high-value companies and they generate outsized economic example, research universities located within employment-dense areas of cities outperform their rural and suburban peers in terms of number of patents, invention disclosures, licensing revenue, and startups per student.16 But federal laboratories built in the shadow of World War II are often located far from firms and cities and have difficulty impacting regional economies.And too often cluster policy receives lip service from Washington, with little actual attention paid to how the federal government can accelerate the economic capacity of regional iguring the federal government’s $146 billion annual R&D investment portfolio to achieve greater economic outcomes should therefore be a prime objective of national order to strengthen innovation districts and other regional technology clusters, the next administration should work with Congress on the following goals: 1.Prioritize innovation districts within federal R&D outlays Federal agencies that fund R&D should prioritize innovation districts because the density of corporate research centers and entrepreneurs increases the likelihood that research will lead to commercial er, Federally Funded R&D Centers (FFRDCs) and University Affiliated Research Centers (UARCs) should be assessed in part based on their proximity to corporate research and employment density, and federal grants in engineering, computer science, life sciences, and other similar fields should prioritize academic institutions located within innovation districts.
Of course, the geographic location of research assets is not the ultimate determinant of economic impact, but co-location and density are important and should be a consideration for all funding federal laboratories with a local economic development mission Federal agencies such as DoD, DoE, DHHS, and the NSF that own and fund federal laboratories and FFRDCs should adopt an explicit mission to support the regional economies in which they are lab managers and agencies approach regional economic development as mutually exclusive from their core missions; this is especially true for weapons labs located within the Departments of Defense and defense and weapons labs like Sandia and Los Alamos in New Mexico have successfully integrated regional economic development programs within their broader research objectives.For example, both labs have partnered with the state of New Mexico on the New Mexico Small Business Assistance Program, which connects small businesses seeking technical assistance with lab researchers.17 Every federal agency and federal lab should view regional economic development as part of its overarching er, increasing the technical capacity of the regions in which labs are located is mutually beneficial for the labs and the local er, given the mobility of the scientific workforce, creating homegrown talent helps labs address off-campus “microlabs” to provide a front door to labs Federal funding agencies, state governments, and regional consortia that utilize the lab system should work together to create and co-fund a number of off-campus, small-scale “microlabs”—co-located within or near universities or private-sector clusters—that would cultivate strategic alliances with regional innovation abs would help overcome the problems that most labs are located outside of technology clusters and that most lab research occurs behind the walls of main microlabs could take the form of additional joint research institutes or new facilities that allow access to lab expertise for untapped regional economic ible, off-campus lab space would also help labs engage with small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).The next administration should work to create microlabs and require state buy-in, or state governments or regional consortia could create voucher programs in concert with DoE and particular labs.Several federal labs are already creating microlabs in cities; for example, Argonne National Laboratory has created office space in the Chicago Innovation Exchange, located on the University of Chicago’s Hyde Park r example is Cyclotron Road, a program of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory funded by the DOE EERE Advanced Manufacturing Office, which provides assistance to entrepreneurial researchers to advance technologies until they can succeed beyond the research ron Road plays a pivotal role in providing entrepreneurs with technology development support (often leveraging technologies coming directly out of the Lawrence Berkeley laboratory) and helps them with identifying the most suitable business models, partners, and financing mechanisms for long-term impact.
18 Beyond external offices, microlabs can serve as funding gateways to align multiple public and private research dollars to meet industry t technology clusters by assessing and managing local-level federal R&D investments The $146 billion invested by the federal government in R&D takes place within specific institutions within communities, and these resources often dwarf the research investments and research-driven employment of non-federal companies and federal research dollars do not necessarily pass through local political, civic, or private-sector such, mayors, chambers of commerce, and philanthropies are often unaware of the innovation portfolio of their issue is most pronounced in large cities that can have over a billion dollars flowing annually from Washington.Without understanding their regional innovation portfolios, regions cannot coordinate and maximize federal investment for local economic growth.To address this knowledge barrier, the federal government should help regions understand their research inflows by packaging their federal dollars by institution, areas of science, connections to global markets, and other data r, the federal government will never be able to whole cloth catalog what regions need to know about their innovation ore, the government should also fund and advise regional innovation asset inventory and management assessments that are tailored to the specific economic development goals of individual federal real estate holdings and reallocate physical research assets to innovation districts The federal government owns billions of dollars’ worth of real estate that houses operations from post offices to federal laboratories.There is no national registry of these holdings and little information regarding their commercial of these physical operations were created before innovation districts and other technology clusters came into existence and are poorly placed to take advantage of the agglomeration benefits of Trump administration should task the General Services Administration with identifying federally owned real estate parcels and strategically move research-intensive activities into existing federal buildings in es should also be able to register unused space within their own research institutions to identify and allocate vacant space for regional entrepreneurship and private-sector ssional appropriation committees have traditionally been skeptical of allowing federal labs discretion on the use of space, but allowing lab managers to contract out unused space would increase the flexibility and regional responsiveness of the lab system.For example, Amtrak operates an office building in the heart of the Philadelphia innovation district, just a few blocks from Drexel University and the University of does no research and extracts little benefit from being near major research universities; on the other hand, NIH, DoD, and NSF operate or fund numerous facilities that would greatly benefit from such a mechanism for better allocating physical assets would be to create an intra-governmental auction whereby agencies could identify strategically located federal buildings and bid on these es like Amtrak that don’t value their legacy locations in cities could sell such buildings to agencies that would benefit, creating a market dynamic within the federal labs to repurpose a small portion of existing funds for timely local collaboration Increasing collaboration between regional universities and tech-based entrepreneurs and corporate partners requires greater flexibility in funding next administration should allow federal labs to set aside a small amount—perhaps 5 percent—of fiscal year funding for unexpected research partnerships that may emerge throughout the year and that clearly align with lab mission and research goals.
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The new normal in funding university science issues in science nbsp Labs would not be required to reserve these funds, nor be required to invest in regional partnerships, but interested labs would have the r repurposing rules should be encouraged for all federal funding opportunity announcements (FOAs) intended for federal rdize research partnership contracts within cities Virtually all innovation districts cluster numerous research institutions, but each one has its own rules relating to the commercialization of research Use standard business letter format.Format your query letter like a formal letter, using a traditional 11- or 12-point font (Courier or Times New Roman), single space paragraphs, and double space between each paragraph.Formally address your pitch letter to a specific agent or editor you have located through rdize research partnership contracts within cities Virtually all innovation districts cluster numerous research institutions, but each one has its own rules relating to the commercialization of research How to purchase an geology homework cheap PhD A4 (British/European) Premium American.Formally address your pitch letter to a specific agent or editor you have located through rdize research partnership contracts within cities Virtually all innovation districts cluster numerous research institutions, but each one has its own rules relating to the commercialization of research.
Cities should work to develop standardized partnership contracts that all research facilities can adopt to help researchers access the full spectrum of activity within a example, in Philadelphia, the Wistar Institute—a National Cancer Institute-designated Cancer Center—has created a simple, standard contract for research partnerships that has been adopted by a number of medical schools in the city Samples Of Research Proposals Papers Leading Empress example, in Philadelphia, the Wistar Institute—a National Cancer Institute-designated Cancer Center—has created a simple, standard contract for research partnerships that has been adopted by a number of medical schools in the federal government should incentivize cities with multiple academic medical centers, federal labs, universities, and research institutions to develop standardized, simple research partnership agreements Samples Of Research Proposals Papers Leading Empress federal government should incentivize cities with multiple academic medical centers, federal labs, universities, and research institutions to develop standardized, simple research partnership development could either occur through pilot grants from the Economic Development Agency or directly through federal R&D funding agencies, such as NIH.The latter may be particularly effective given that in many cities research institutions with similar areas of expertise receive federal funding from the same federal NIH regional pre-competitive consortia to address national health concerns Given that over 80 percent of NIH R&D funding is allocated through its more than 50,000 grants across the country, the agency is ideally situated to support regional technology r, most NIH research grants don’t directly incentivize partnerships that lead to collaboration—particularly at the institutional-leadership level (e.
, for universities, the provost of research or president level) How to get a custom criminal justice thesis 7 days A4 (British/European) Chicago. | 16.12.2017| 185| How to buy an applied mathematics research paper British College Junior single spaced. | 09.12.2017| 130| Need to purchase imaging systems and technology presentation Vancouver US Letter Size Undergrad.., for universities, the provost of research or president level).Rather, most collaboration around NIH grants occurs at the principal investigator partnerships between researchers are important, more can be done to stimulate research-based partnerships between the public, civic, and private improve the commercial impact of research grants, the next administration should support regional pre-competitive consortia to address national health applying for NIH grants, research institutions should be incentivized to coordinate with peers in their region englishwritinghelp.com/paper/atomic-energy.php.Rather, most collaboration around NIH grants occurs at the principal investigator partnerships between researchers are important, more can be done to stimulate research-based partnerships between the public, civic, and private improve the commercial impact of research grants, the next administration should support regional pre-competitive consortia to address national health applying for NIH grants, research institutions should be incentivized to coordinate with peers in their region.Making the consortia pre-competitive (i atomic energy.Making the consortia pre-competitive (i., uninvolved in patent development) will help to avoid intellectual property disputes and allow the efforts of its members to dovetail more closely with the academic missions of NIH research way to further incentivize partnerships would be to give grant proposals extra weight if multiple technology transfer offices, private-sector actors, and others within a city are designated as principal already supports some pre-competitive consortia at the national level, such as the Accelerating Medicines Partnership and within its Clinical and Translational Science Awards, but doing so even more within technology clusters at the local level would enable research institutions to take advantage of proximity to form more long-lasting partnerships.19 Summary Some worry the concept of innovation districts is just the latest urban fad, but there is nothing new about the economics of clusters and agglomeration; they have been studied by economists for over a as research parks defined much of the geography of innovation over the last half of the 20th century, innovation districts and other technology clusters are becoming emblematic of this century’s spatial science and technology next administration should consider innovation districts and other regional clusters of technology generation (rural, suburban, and urban)—as strategic assets in the same vein as federal laboratories, military research facilities, and the university institutions would not exist as they do without longstanding, substantial support from the federal new president should add innovation districts to the list of national treasures that are supported and nurtured by the federal government, in partnership both with cities and with state technology-based economic development organizations.
Bolster institutions supporting tech transfer, commercialization, and innovation In the private sector, firms need to innovate to respond to se, the competition for innovation leadership among nations has only grown fiercer.31 Throughout its history, the United States has responded to international economic competition by chartering new institutions to bolster its innovation instance, the Morrill Act of 1862 chartered new universities in the agricultural and mechanical arts.32 In the 1980s, the United States launched Sematech (a semiconductor research consortium) and the Manufacturing Extension Partnership in part as a response to heighted German and Japanese economic competition.The Obama administration launched Manufacturing USA in part to address the erosion of America’s industrial ile, America’s global competitors have launched new institutions of their own, as documented in ITIF’s report, The Global Flourishing of National Innovation Foundations, which catalogued the efforts of almost 50 nations in chartering national innovation foundations and articulating national innovation strategies.33 Yet the United States still lacks a national innovation sing that need and other proposals to expand the institutions underpinning America’s innovation economy are considered ish a core of 20 “manufacturing universities” Across many American universities, the focus on engineering as a science has increasingly moved university engineering education away from a focus on real-world problem solving toward more abstract engineering questions, leaving university engineering departments more concerned with producing pure knowledge than working with industry to help it solve address this, the United Sates should designate a core of at least 20 “manufacturing universities” that revamp their engineering programs to focus more on manufacturing engineering and on work that is relevant to industry.
34 This effort would include more joint industry-university research projects, more student training that incorporates manufacturing experiences through co-ops or other programs, and a m focused on turning out more engineering graduates who work in industry.At these manufacturing universities, criteria for faculty tenure would consider professors’ work with or in industry as much as their number of scholarly addition, these universities’ business schools would integrate closely with engineering and focus on manufacturing issues, including management of schools would also appoint a chief manufacturing officer, as Georgia Tech has done, to oversee universities’ interdisciplinary manufacturing programs and ascertain how they can maximize their impact on regional economic development.A good model for these manufacturing universities is the Olin College of Engineering in Massachusetts, which reimagined engineering education and curricula to prepare students “to become exemplary engineering innovators who recognize needs, design solutions, and engage in creative enterprises for the good of the world.” Olin’s students now launch more startups per graduate than even MIT.The Manufacturing Universities Act seeks to establish a competitive grant program for universities that propose to revamp their engineering programs and to focus much more on manufacturing engineering and in particular work that is more relevant to ic institutions receiving a manufacturing university designation would be eligible for an annual award of up to $5 million for up to four years.
35 The Manufacturing Universities Act of 2015 was incorporated into the 2017 National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) passed by the Senate in June 2016, but it was not included in the House’s version of the y, the conference version of the NDAA that comes out of committee would include the manufacturing universities legislative next administration should make implementation of the manufacturing universities legislation a top priority, directing relevant agencies (notably NSF and the National Institute of Standards and Technology) to implement it swiftly and effectively.Complete the buildout of Manufacturing USA to 45 Institutes of Manufacturing Innovation (IMIs) Manufacturing USA, launched in 2013 as the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation by the Obama administration and endorsed on a bipartisan basis by Congress through the Revitalizing American Manufacturing Innovation Act, has played a pivotal role in revitalizing America’s industrial commons and helping ensure U.leadership across a range of advanced manufacturing process and product technologies.36 Thus far, nine Institutes of Manufacturing Innovation have been launched, focused on additive manufacturing, digital manufacturing and design innovation, lightweight and modern metals, power electronics, advanced composites, integrated photonics, flexible hybrid electronics, clean energy smart manufacturing, and revolutionary fibers and textiles.As of December 2016, six more IMIs are under development, including two in a competition to be overseen by DoE (focused on Chemical Process Intensification and Sustainable Manufacturing), two expected to be led by the Department of Defense (focused on Regenerative Medicine and Assistive and Soft Robotics), and two more open topic competitions to be spearheaded by the Department of Obama administration has articulated a vision for a total of 45 Trump administration should collaborate with Congress to provide funding and authorization to build out the 45-institute network of industry-led Manufacturing USA a National Engineering and Innovation Foundation Science-based discoveries without a commercialization component mute the potential impact of R&D.
Connecting discovery with production requires engineering-based innovation, an appropriable activity through which U.establishments can add and capture value.37 And this requires the United States getting better at generating pathways that turn science into U.Engineering is not science; the two have distinctly different purposes.
Help me write a custom wwii research proposal quality college junior american platinum 24 hours As Sridhar Kota, formerly assistant director for advanced manufacturing at the Office of Science and Technology Policy, writes, “Science is about analysis and discovery and dissemination of ering is about synthesis and invention and turning ideas into reality through a process called innovation and through translational research and entrepreneurship.
” 38 Both science and engineering are instrumental if American firms are to introduce successful innovations over the long term Skills To List On Resume For Sales Personal Statement Price in nbsp.” 38 Both science and engineering are instrumental if American firms are to introduce successful innovations over the long term.Yet the United States invests significantly more in scientific research than it does in example, of the total federal research investments in science and engineering in 2008, approximately 14 percent were allocated to engineering development and the remainder to other scientific fields Get a custom research proposal wwii originality Undergrad A4 (British/European) Platinum example, of the total federal research investments in science and engineering in 2008, approximately 14 percent were allocated to engineering development and the remainder to other scientific fields.39 NSF invests roughly one-tenth on engineering education as it does on science and mathematics ingly, it’s time to raise the profile of engineering within our national innovation NSF supports phenomenal work, its primary mission is funding scientific research while its engineering support programs get short shrift.Therefore, the next administration should work with Congress to create a National Engineering and Innovation Foundation as a separate entity operating alongside the National Science Foundation.
40 The new National Engineering and Innovation Foundation would consolidate the current Engineering Directorate within NSF including the ERC and I/UCRC programs, the tech commercialization parts of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (e., including MEP and the Advanced Manufacturing Technology Consortia (AMTech) program), DoD’s Manufacturing Technology (ManTech) program, and DoE’s Advanced Manufacturing office into a single entity with an engineering and innovation focus.Because federal agencies often propose regulations with little consideration given to their effect on innovation, Congress should task the Office of Management and Budget’s Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs with creating an Office of Innovation Review (OIR) to review proposed regulations to determine their effect not just on costs in the short term but also on innovation over the long term.OIR would have the specific mission of being the “innovation champion” within agency rule-making processes.41 It would have authority to push agencies to either affirmatively promote innovation or to achieve a particular regula¨tory objective in a manner least damaging to innova¨ would be authorized to propose new agency actions and to respond to existing ones, and could incorporate a “competitiveness screen” in its review of federal regulations that affect globally traded a network of acquisition-oriented DoD labs based in regional technology clusters The Department of Defense is uniquely positioned to commercialize research from its over $70 billion of R&D investments annually because it invests with the intent of deploying R&D outcomes throughout its own operations.
According to its own accounting, between 2000 and 2014 DoD paid private companies that had licensing arrangements with its labs $3.4 billion for military technology; during the same period, companies that licensed technology from DoD labs generated $20 billion in sales outside of DoD.
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42 This is a positive outcome, because it suggests that even the licensing arrangements companies have with DoD that don’t end in procurement still generate broader economic other words, companies pay to use technology generated by DoD and then develop products and services around the technological discovery to meet defense as well as market continuous cycle of development well positions the department’s R&D to impact the broader economy in general and regional clusters in particular.But the same report finds that the majority of licensing agreements are signed with a few large defense contractors, leaving many regions without such firms out of the game.43 Moreover, as DoD seeks to acquire technologies beyond munitions, moving into areas such as software, material science, autonomous systems and vehicles, energy, and medical devices, it will need a broader scope of increase the breadth of R&D-based procurement, the Trump administration should create a network of applied defense R&D facilities around regional technology clusters 1National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305, USA. 2Department of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA Authors may prepare their papers for review using any word processor, one or two columns, single or double spaced. Please follow .
43 Moreover, as DoD seeks to acquire technologies beyond munitions, moving into areas such as software, material science, autonomous systems and vehicles, energy, and medical devices, it will need a broader scope of increase the breadth of R&D-based procurement, the Trump administration should create a network of applied defense R&D facilities around regional technology clusters.
44 The network would be similar to Manufacturing USA but with numerous smaller centers that are highly focused around the virtuous cycle of firms working with DoD labs and creating products and services that meet military is already moving in this direction, in accordance with Secretary of Defense Ash Carter’s Third Offset strategy, which seeks to counter declining force sizes with the development of novel capabilities and concepts.45 For example, the Defense Innovation Unit Experimental (DIUx) seeks to create bridges between the Pentagon and the commercial technology currently has locations in Silicon Valley, Boston, and Austin, Texas; last year it awarded 12 contracts worth $ DIUx is a good start, its budget is tiny compared to the changing demands for new technologies within the ingly, DoD should invest $500 million to develop 50 similar centers as technology platforms across the country How to order a geology homework high quality Editing Business US Letter Size 7 days.45 For example, the Defense Innovation Unit Experimental (DIUx) seeks to create bridges between the Pentagon and the commercial technology currently has locations in Silicon Valley, Boston, and Austin, Texas; last year it awarded 12 contracts worth $ DIUx is a good start, its budget is tiny compared to the changing demands for new technologies within the ingly, DoD should invest $500 million to develop 50 similar centers as technology platforms across the country.Given that DoD already operates dozens of laboratories across 22 states, in many cases existing labs could shift their research and commercialization strategies to better align with adjacent technology other regions, the department would need to develop new ish manufacturing development facilities Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee operates the Department of Energy’s first manufacturing development facility (MDF), which focuses on assisting industry’s adoption of new manufacturing technologies that can lower production costs, speed time to market, and reduce energy consumption in manufacturing facility focuses on additive manufacturing (3D printing), carbon fiber and other composites, and new battery technologies and is also the location of the Institute for Advanced Composites Manufacturing Innovation, part of Manufacturing USA.46 The MDF helps bridge basic research at Oak Ridge and the real-time commercial needs of , because East Tennessee has historical technical strengths in composites and advanced manufacturing, the MDF is strategically positioned to amplify the region’s next administration should create 20 additional manufacturing development facilities to bring to market the fruits of scientific and technical research discoveries made by federal laboratories run by DoD, DHHS, DoE, and other federal is important to note that MDFs are not the same thing as manufacturing institutes; rather, they are specific lab departments, offices, or facilities that are either currently located behind the fence or new facilities that would traditionally be developed behind the ore, relocating these assets would require less funding than developing new manufacturing institutes (which are also intended to meet different needs).Establish a foundation for the national energy laboratories A number of agencies—including USDA, the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Department of the Interior, NIH, the Food and Drug Administration, and DoD—have established foundations to provide them with more flexibility to accomplish their foundations are legally chartered to accept donations from alumni inventors and scientists, philanthropists, and high-wealth individuals to support research efforts in ways that federal and private funding alone tions are often highly capitalized, for example the foundation for the National Institutes of Health has a $100 million endowment and a $500,000 operating off of the success of existing research foundations, the next administration should create a foundation for the national energy laboratories.
Because many philanthropies are forbidden by their charters to fund overhead, and the federal lab system is congressionally mandated to charge overhead from donations, a foundation for the national energy labs could serve as a funding intermediary between the civic sector and federal foundation could also endow research chairs around areas of national interest, help support moving translational research to market, and even fund and take equity in y If the United States wishes to keep pace in the increasingly intense competition for global innovation leadership, it will need to evaluate its existing base of institutions underpinning America’s innovation system and consider new ones that can play important roles in bolstering the country’s levels of technology transfer, commercialization, and launching the Manufacturing USA network of Institutes of Manufacturing Innovation, the United States has shown a commendable ability to do so, but it alone is not enough and continued institutional innovation will be needed going technology transfer and commercialization-related programs and investments Publicly funded research institutions—federal laboratories, universities, academic hospitals, military and space laboratories, and non-profit research centers—represent core assets in the U.Not only do these institutions push the frontiers of science, they are anchors of regional economic the charters of many of these facilities are related to mission-oriented, non-economic public priorities, their activities are deeply tied to the future of the American R&D in defense supports aerospace and materials science industries, clean energy research promotes clean technologies such as wind turbines and new batteries, and scientific advances in public health lead to drug discoveries and health information technology platforms, to name but a few examples.These institutions also train and employ current and future generations of scientists and r, realizing the economic potential of R&D activities is no sure order for university and lab research to reach the market, these institutions must be supported by strong policies, incentives, and funding streams that collectively make commercialization a date, the efficacy of technology transfer mechanisms at federal laboratories and federally supported universities is mixed.47 Some labs and universities have elevated the importance of technology transfer and put in place creative and impactful policies to promote commercialization in their economic regions.For example, in 2015 the Oak Ridge National Laboratory established an innovation voucher program to enable technical assistance to small and medium-sized manufacturers in the universities such as MIT, Pepperdine, and Carnegie Mellon have strong track records of implementing flexible, business-friendly technology transfer agreements.
Research and the research problem nyu Unfortunately, as the report Innovation U 2.0: Reinventing University Roles in a Knowledge Economy documents, there is little consistency and insufficient adoption of best practices across universities, federal laboratories, and funding agencies.48 As the largest funder of federal laboratory and university research, the executive branch has an enormous opportunity to incentivize the commercialization of research Applicants must have the terminal degree in their field (for academics, this generally means a Ph., but for other professions other appropriate qualifications will be considered), and ata) a brief (3-5 single-spaced pages) description of their proposed research project, its scholarly contribution, and its policy relevance.
48 As the largest funder of federal laboratory and university research, the executive branch has an enormous opportunity to incentivize the commercialization of research.President Obama’s Lab-to-Market Initiative was a step in the right direction, but there is more to be order to unleash the full economic power of federally funded universities and laboratories, the incoming administration should work with Congress in the following areas: se the importance of commercialization activities at federal labs/research institutes America’s federal laboratories are insufficiently incentivized to invest time, energy, and resources in facilitating technology transfer, in large part because technology transfer is not even one of the eight main criteria in the Performance Evaluation and Management Plan (PEMP), a kind of annual report card for the federal labs Mathematics and Operations Research in Industry Mathematical se the importance of commercialization activities at federal labs/research institutes America’s federal laboratories are insufficiently incentivized to invest time, energy, and resources in facilitating technology transfer, in large part because technology transfer is not even one of the eight main criteria in the Performance Evaluation and Management Plan (PEMP), a kind of annual report card for the federal labs.49 Rather, PEMP treats successful transfers of technology to market as an a ninth category to the PEMP for “Technology Impact” would create a mechanism to evaluate the economic impact of lab-developed technology, creating a stronger incentive for lab managers to focus on market implementation of valuable government intellectual property assets and technical se funding for cooperative industry/university research programs at universities Industry-university partnerships spur greater levels of commercialization and the United States, NSF’s Engineering Directorate operates two kinds of industry-university partnerships: Engineering Research Centers (ERCs) and Industry/University Cooperative Research Centers (I/UCRCs).The ERCs are a group of 19 interdisciplinary centers located at universities, where academia and industry collaborate in pursuing strategic advances in complex engineered systems and systems-level technologies that have the potential to spawn whole new industries or to radically transform the product lines, processing technologies, or service-delivery methodologies of current industries.71 The 75 I/UCRC programs forge partnerships between universities and industry, featuring industrially relevant fundamental research, industrial support of and collaboration in research and education, and direct transfer of university-developed ideas, research results, and technology to U.
industry to improve its competitive posture in global markets.72 In other words, the ERCs are focused on collaborative research among universities in advanced engineering systems, whereas the I/UCRCs bring in the industry component of advanced engineering systems research in collaboration with Trump administration should work with Congress to increase I/UCRC funding to at least $50 million annually (a considerable increase from the $8 million budgeted in 2016).73 The National Science Foundation has requested $61 million to fund 18 ERCs in FY 2017, but by 2020 Congress and the administration should look to grow the network of ERCs to 30 with appropriations of $100 million.74 There is good reason to do so, for the ERC and I/UCRC programs represent some of the most impactful initiatives in the federal instance, each dollar invested by I/UCRC generates an estimated $64.75 While the increased funding being called for here for the two programs is relatively minor (about $80 million), even this need not increase spending, since funds can be reallocated in a budget-neutral manner from other activities.
Again, the goal is to prioritize those federal programs and initiatives that have demonstrated the most powerful ish an International Patent Consortium U.government and university technology transfer offices cannot afford to file and prosecute foreign patent applications on all their technology inventions.Accordingly, foreign rights to technologies invented at U.federal laboratories or universities often go wanting, and so commercialization opportunities are missed in foreign solution would be to create an International Patent Consortium, comprising country-specific (or regional) groups of international industry, financial, government, economic development, and technology transfer professionals who would collectively pay the patent expenses for at least two inventions per year from a U.technology transfer office in exchange for the exclusive marketing rights to those inventions (within a foreign country or region), with such rights then locally sublicensed by the process could help ameliorate the current practice of filing foreign patents in only a handful of consortium concept could increase the breadth and value of the intellectual property portfolio of U.
licensees (particularly small companies) with international marketing and distribution partners who could also provide complementary technology, equity, and international business y Given mounting fiscal pressures, both the incoming Trump administration and Congress need to focus on improving the economic return on investment from existing infrastructure and is clearly time to elevate the importance attached to commercialization-oriented activities associated with federal R&D funding programs as well as raise commercialization’s profile in the missions of federal laboratories and federally funded e high-growth, tech-based entrepreneurship One key step the federal government can take to boost the economy is to better support high-growth, tech-based startups because these firms play an important role in job creation and innovation.According to research by MIT economist Scott Stern, 75 percent of employment generated by startups can be attributed to just 5 percent of entrepreneurs.76 Moreover, the relationship between young firms and larger companies is an essential ingredient for innovation.77 Large companies house much of the industry knowledge needed for finding new solutions, but they often have tightly controlled product lines and corporate governance structures that can make radical innovation the same time, young firms lack the market intelligence to know exactly what solutions can be monetized, but they represent a disproportionate share of radical innovation and are often acquired by large companies better suited to market new ideas.
Dense, regional clusters are important to the interplay between young and large firms because economic research shows that entrepreneurs and larger firms collaborate most when they are geographically close.
78 Unfortunately, the job-creating capacity of high-growth entrepreneurial firms has declined over the last 15 that before 2000 the fastest-growing young firms (those in the 90th percentile of all young firms) grew employment at a steady rate of just under 70 percent a year, but by 2012 that rate had declined to 55 percent.79 The authors also find that the portion of young, high-growth technology firms has declined since 2000, as Figure 2 shows.80 Figure 2: High-growth firms by firm age and annual employment growth rates, 1980-2012 Source: Decker et al,, “Where Has All the Skewness Gone? The Decline in High-Growth (Young) Firms in the U.: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2016).While startups once represented a wellspring of employment opportunities in new technology industries, today the flow is ore, supporting high-growth entrepreneurship should be a key pillar of the next administration’s innovation policy priorities.
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Encourage student entrepreneurship The next administration should encourage universities to define an entrepreneurial leave policy for undergraduate and graduate students in which students could retain full-time student status for one to two years while launching their own the United States, for example, federal agencies supporting university research in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education should adopt a policy whereby any graduate or post-doctoral students on an assistantship, fellowship, or other form of federal support can petition for a no-cost one- to two-year extension of their status as they take “entrepreneurial leave.” Another option would be to provide graduates an entrepreneurial student loan deferment when they are attempting to start a deferment could be extended if certain metrics were being met, such as jobs created or venture capital raised.Help nascent high-growth startups secure needed capital In 1995, Silicon Valley accounted for e capital, Los Angeles/Orange County 12 10 Dec 2017 - Who can help me with my college essay ageing double spaced 71 pages / 19525 words formatting us letter size; Should i order a custom ageing essay cheap single spaced premium oxford 30 days; Preventing polypharmacy in older adults american nurse today; Help me write an ageing essay one day .Help nascent high-growth startups secure needed capital In 1995, Silicon Valley accounted for e capital, Los Angeles/Orange County 12.
4 percent, and all other areas of the United States years later, in 2015, Silicon Valley had more than doubled its share, to 46.7 percent, while the share for the rest of the United States fell to 22 .
7 percent, while the share for the rest of the United States fell to 22.
81 In other words, today just four regions of the United States account for 78 percent of all U.venture capital investment, while the remainder of the country fights over the remaining , a substantial number of promising young businesses scattered throughout all regions of the United States likely have difficulty securing capital, particularly venture capital, because most venture capital investment is concentrated on America’s Small Business Jobs Act of 2010 helped to address this problem; it created the State Small Business Credit Initiative (SSBCI), a $1.5 billion fund designed to strengthen state programs that support lending to small businesses and small manufacturers.Need to buy a college wwii research proposal premium academic 134 pages / 36850 words us letter size 82 The SSBCI gave states significant flexibility to design programs to meet local market conditions, with SSBCI supporting 152 small business programs from 2011 to imately 69 percent of the funding supported lending or credit support programs and 31 percent supported venture capital 2011 to 2015, SSBCI programs supported nearly $8 7 Dec 2016 - The investments government and businesses make in basic and applied research and development (R&D) plant the seeds for the technologies, products, firms,Employment growth in the 36 months following the trough of the recession was the slowest of the 11 post-World War II recoveries, and average.From 2011 to 2015, SSBCI programs supported nearly $8.
4 billion in new capital in small business loans and investments.83In effect, SSBCI provides an opportunity for states to supplement existing venture capital programs, revitalize programs lacking sufficient state support, and create new programs where state managers perceive unmet needs in evolving entrepreneurial ecosystems Your paper topic proposal requires research in order to make your proposal as close to your paper topic as possible.I strongly suggest you come toAfter you have done some preliminary research and reading on your narrowed-down topic, you should formulate a single-sentence thesis statement.83In effect, SSBCI provides an opportunity for states to supplement existing venture capital programs, revitalize programs lacking sufficient state support, and create new programs where state managers perceive unmet needs in evolving entrepreneurial SSBCI has made a positive impact in expanding high-potential businesses’ access to credit, and so the next administration should reauthorize it and double its ish an entrepreneur-in-residence program with NIH While all federal funding agencies should support greater research-driven entrepreneurs, NIH is unique in that health care and life science startups are particularly difficult to grow—but often represent significant economic value when they er, among all agencies, NIH distributes the largest share of federal funding to universities, many of which have only recently begun to seriously think about technology transfer through faculty and student-generated businesses.
Universities and academic medical centers that receive funding from NIH often follow the narrow and traditional path to commercializing research that revolves around patenting and the “classic” model of technology transfer, researchers at universities and medical centers apply for NIH and other federal funds to pursue basic science and patent their technology transfer office at the university/medical center then takes these patents and licenses their use to biotechnology and pharmaceutical firms for the development of the classic model can be an appropriate vehicle for commercialization, it often lacks strong connections between firms and research organizations.Successfully scaling a life-sciences startup requires social and capital networks, mentorship, public-private partnerships, and access to both scientific and managerial talent.Developing, recruiting, and coordinating these disparate pieces of the medical entrepreneurial ecosystem is difficult but once achieved can spur new economic clusters, firms, and years venture capital firms have run entrepreneur-in-residence (EIR) programs, where the firm hires proven entrepreneurs to review its patent portfolio and work with other star entrepreneurs to help them establishing an entrepreneur-in-residence program at universities that receive NIH research funding, including basic and translational (DHHS already has an EIR program that serves a different purpose), the agency can help universities identify, support, and grow the research efforts best positioned to become high-growth companies.84 Summary Political economists Peter Hall and David Soskice argue that the United States’ entrepreneurship ecosystem is central to the country’s ability to produce innovations that lead to new industries—automobiles, planes, electronics, software, etc.89 While other countries such as Germany have strong industrial policies that allow legacy industries to remain competitive through technology adoption, radical innovation through new firms is a unique American strength.
To continue to build on this, the next administration will need to create policies that better support high-growth tech-based startups and attract foreign tech-based entrepreneurs while also incentivizing universities, federal labs, and other federally funded institutions to encourage ate private-sector innovation Leveraging federal R&D alone won’t be enough to re-establish U.leadership in advanced manufacturing and technology e over two-thirds of R&D is performed by the private sector, the administration must also incentivize and support private-sector R&D and create stronger linkages between public and private R&D.Supporting such R&D is crucial because it is a critical input to the private-sector innovations that drive long-term U.There are at least four reasons why the government should support private-sector , without government incentives for R&D, worker training, and investments in new capital equipment, the private sector would underinvest in innovation because new technologies are often easily replicated and transferred between firms.This is particularly true as technology imitation occurs far more quickly today than in the past, due in part to the global base of technology competitors and the speed of reverse er the iPad, first released in March the 2011 Consumer Electronics Show, close to a dozen competing tablets were on display.
90 Effects like these are why the economist Lorin Hitt finds that spillovers to other firms from firms’ investments in information technology are “almost as large in size as the effect of their own investments.” 91 This is good for the economy but bad for the innovative company that cannot reap the full market benefits of its technology.Second, the gulf between federal and private-sector R&D is the last half century, firms have moved away from investing in basic research and toward market-oriented development research; at the same time, the federal government has shifted its R&D portfolio toward basic n 1965 and 2015, the share of federal R&D going to basic research increased from less than 10 percent to 25 percent.92 Figure 3 shows that federal investment in development-oriented activities (i., the “D” in “R&D”) as a share of GDP has trailed off significantly since the impact of these trends is that now federal research outcomes leave off far too early for corporate research centers to fix the problem, greater linking mechanisms are , economic research clearly shows that innovation-oriented tax credits , Griffith, and Van Reenen find that R&D tax credits stimulate $1.
93 Coopers and Lybrand find higher benefits, of between $1.94 Similarly, Klassen, Pittman, and Reed find that, for every one dollar of tax revenue lost, the R&D credit induces $2.95 Finally, the United States now lags far behind many other countries in innovation-incentivizing tax United States invented the R&D tax credit in the early 1980s, and as late as 1992 ranked first globally in R&D tax incentive generosity.96 While in 2015 Congress laudably made the R&D tax credit permanent, other countries have raced ahead, creating robust investment tax credits, bridging public and private R&D, and incentivizing workforce training and technology investments by the private sector.To stimulate private sector innovation, the incoming administration should work with Congress on the following ent innovation vouchers Innovation vouchers are low-cost tools for connecting startups with public research institutes or universities to incentivize R&D among young, innovative main goals of an innovation voucher are to enable knowledge transfers between startups and research institutes, support sectoral innovation in manufacturing, support innovation management and advisory services, speed commercialization of startup ideas, and focus research institutions on the commercial applications of their l countries, including Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Ireland, and Sweden, have begun using innovation vouchers to support R&D, innovation, and new product development in small businesses.
With traditional voucher programs SMEs can typically receive a $5,000-$10,000 voucher for a cooperation project with a university, community college, or research institution for R&D assistance, technology feasibility studies, analysis of technology transfer, or analysis of the innovation potential of a new voucher creates an incentive to bring SMEs and academia closer together and also empowers innovation at , including New Mexico, Rhode Island, and Tennessee, are experimenting with innovation vouchers.For example, in 2015, Oak Ridge National lab established an innovation voucher program to enable technical assistance to SME manufacturers in Alamos and Sandia national laboratories in New Mexico operate a similar program.97 And the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy office within DoE has created a pilot innovation voucher for its national ss should extend vouchers to entire federal lab system by authorizing $50 million to the National Institute of Standards and Technology to fund a program operated by select states that agree to match the funding dollar for dollar (perhaps through tax credits to national labs within their borders).As a potential source of funds to keep the initiative revenue-neutral, one option would be to reallocate 0.5 percent of the laboratories’ current budgets to fund the vouchers.